September 1992 marks the 25th anniversary of moving the Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT) from Ottawa to Yellowknife. In that time, the growth of the territorial governmental process has been phenomenal. In 1967, most GNWT employees travelled in one plane going to Yellowknife, and the government's budget was about $14 million. Today, there are almost 6000 GNWT employees and the budget is over $1.1 billion. Strength at Two Levels (the Beatty Report) is certainly one of the more interesting and contentious reports commissioned by the GNWT. On the one hand it advocates expanding the powers of local governments in the region - hence, strength at the territorial and local levels of government. At the same time, if implemented, recommendations of the report would undermine part of the GNWT's power base in Yellowknife. The question then is: Will the report become a blueprint for change, or will it be just another document for decentralization, unheeded by Yellowknife? The Beatty Report is about the high cost of government in the Northwest Territories (NWT). ... The Beatty Report is not the only design for change on the table in the North. Since November 1991, the governing of their own lands by the Inuit would certainly necessitate restructuring northern government. In the western Northwest Territories the Commission for Constitutional development issued its report in April 1992, "Working Toward a Common Future." It posed the possibility of a new constitutional process for the new territory, emphasizing the necessity of beginning authority relationships with people and communities. Its design would certainly restructure the governmental process in the NWT. Thus the dominant view circulating in the NWT seems to be that change is required in northern government. Twenty-five years of evolution have created a centralized, cumbersome and expensive territorial government centred in Yellowknife. Many individuals and groups outside Yellowknife want a greater say in the policy-making process. A number of ideas exist about how the present system should be changed. The Beatty Report is one of those ideas, but one upon which the GNWT is relying heavily. Pressures on members of the Legislative Assembly may force the government to incorporate a number of views in its plans for restructuring. But the question remains, will the GNWT actually embark on a process of change, where communities or regions actually have greater decision-making powers? This may be difficult for a government that has built up a great deal of inertia over 25 years.
Effects on woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) of low-level military jet training at Canadian Forces Base - Goose Bay (Labrador) were studied during the 1986-88 training seasons. Calf survival was periodically monitored during 1987 and 1988 in a sample of 15 females wearing satellite-tracked radiocollars. During 1987, each female's exposure to low-level overflights was experimentally manipulated on a daily basis. In 1988, daily exposure was determined by analyzing jet flight tracks following the low-level flying season. Calf survival was monitored by survey flights every 3-4 weeks. A calf survival index, the number of survey periods (maximum = 4) that a cow was accompanied by a calf, was negatively correlated with the female's exposure to low-level jet overflights during the calving and immediate post-calving period and again during the period of insect harassment during summer. No significant relationship between calf survival and exposure to low-level flying was seen during the pre-calving period, during the late post-calving period prior to insect harassment, and during fall. In view of the continued depression of population growth in the woodland caribou population within the low-level training area, jets should avoid overflying woodland caribou calving range at least during the last week of May and the first three weeks of June.
The notion of sustainable development has considerable appeal in northern Canada, a reflection of traditional practices of indigenous populations and the region's experiences with the encroachment of industrial society. The lexicon of "sustainable development" has made the identification of appropriate economic activities a central issue. There is no standard approach to this problem although Weeden (1989) produced a useful framework for evaluation. Analysis of the evolution of the economic geography of the North provides some insights into both the current emphasis on the role of communities in sustainable development strategies and the origin of candidate activities. Review of possible candidate activities suggests that there is perhaps a tendency to confuse renewal with sustainability and that the appropriateness of activities may be called into doubt when viewed from the standpoint of relative energy consumption and global context. Sustenance harvesting is seen as perhaps the most viable sustainable activity, although some assessments of its value may be overstated. Non-renewable resource exploitation is a particular problem, yet the extraction of some non-renewable resources may contribute to a global goal of sustainability. A prerequisite for the development of a rational approach to sustainability lies in establishing the nature of the reciprocal relationship between urban centres and the northern periphery.
Despite formidable physical barriers, mining has taken place in Greenland for more than 100 years. Initially it was by royal concession but without a formal regulatory framework; later there were a few guiding principles laid down by law and elaborated administratively to suit the occasion. One previous attempt had been made to devise a policy that would attract investment, but the resulting mining legislation did not seem to have served this purpose. A policy review initiated in 1989 as a result of a growing need for alternatives to the ailing Greenlandic fishing industry recently resulted in the enactment of new mining and tax legislation. The new Mining Act is the first step on the road towards development of Greenland's resources. The real test, however, will come when one or more projects enter the development phase. Then the management of impact of these projects and the revenues they generate will be central to a successful mining policy.
Spatial and temporal variation of sea ice geophysical properties and microwave remote sensing observations : the SIMS'90 experiment
De Abreu, R.A.
Arctic, v. 45, no. 3, Sept. 1992, p. 233-251, ill. (some col.), maps
ASTIS record 32506
In this paper we present results from a sea ice field experiment conducted coincidentally with overflights of orbital and aerial remote sensing instrumentation in Resolute Passage and Barrow Strait, Northwest Territories, Canada. Our principal focus is to describe the spatial and temporal distribution of selected geophysical variables in the context of how microwave energy interacts with this seasonally varying snow-covered sea ice surface. Over the duration of the experiment, snow crystal size, structure, and snow volume salinities changed sufficiently to affect synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scattering; thermal profiles through the snow cover were diurnally driven; ice surface microscale roughness increased due to sublimation of water vapour from the snow pack onto the ice surface; and bulk ice surface; and bulk ice salinities did not change. Results from the SAR data analysis indicate that the geophysical structure of multiyear ice created a larger and more rapid change in the seasonal SAR scattering signature than did the structure for early consolidated smooth first-year ice. These results are considered fundamental to measurement and monitoring of the seasonal evolution of the snow-covered arctic sea ice surface using SAR remote sensing.
Nonrandom distribution of antlers cast by Peary caribou bulls, Melville Island, Northwest Territories
Arctic, v. 45, no. 3, Sept. 1992, p. 252-257, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 32507
An aerial survey was carried out in July 1987 to determine the pattern of distribution of antlers cast by Peary caribou (Rangifer tarandus pearyi) bulls on north-central and northeastern Melville Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. Four transect lines were flown parallel to the coastal shorelines of Hecla and Griper Bay and adjacent Sabine Bay at distances of about 0.8, 2.4, 5.0, and 10.0 km inland. A four-person survey crew was used in a Bell-206B turbo-helicopter flown at about 90 m above ground level and at an air speed of about 160 km/h. We recorded 531 antlers cast by bulls along ca. 1110 km of transects: 55% within 1.6 km of the seacoast and 89% within 3.2 km. Antlers were not randomly distributed along or among transects (p<0.05). The antlers were clumped in distribution and their numbers declined significantly with distance from the seacoast (p<0.05). We suggest that use of such coastal rutting areas by low-density populations of Peary caribou would confer, without any precognition or anticipation on the part of the animals, maximal timely contact between rutting bulls and cows in heat during the short temporal peak of the autumn rut by reducing a two-dimensional search problem to an essentially linear one.
A description of summer physical oceanographic conditions in Rupert Bay (James Bay, Canada)
Van Der Baaren, A.
Arctic, v. 45, no. 3, Sept. 1992, p. 258-268, ill., maps
ASTIS record 32508
Measurements of current velocity, temperature, salinity, and water level were made over a period of two months in Rupert Bay, James Bay (Canada). From an analysis of the current meter time series, the circulation and distribution of physical properties were found to be dominated by the tides, with the semi-diurnal component being the predominant component. An analysis of variance revealed that 77% of the salinity variations were related to the tides. Vertically homogeneous conditions prevailed in many areas because of a large tidal amplitude/depth ratio of 0.625, causing intense mixing in two-thirds of the estuary. Non-tidal velocity components were found to be 0(1) less than tidal currents, with the long-term mean circulation directed out of the bay. Non-tidal water level variations were well correlated with the wind. The maximum cross-correlation coefficient was calculated to be 0.77 for a 7 hour lag. The centrifugal force, Coriolis force, and baroclinic pressure gradient were dominant forces driving the secondary flows of the bay. Tidal fronts were found to be either aligned parallel to the main axes of principal channels or around small downstream islands with the arrangement influenced by bottom topography.
A modified caribou antler, interpreted as a flintknapper's punch, was collected with hundreds of other Pleistocene mammal bones at Hunker Creek near Dawson City, Yukon Territory. It has yielded a radiocarbon date of 11,350 ± 110 B.P. by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Although the specimen was not found in stratigraphic context, we infer its probable burial history from its radiocarbon age and surface alteration, and its artifactual nature from the way it has been modified. Since it is contemporaneous with Alaskan and Yukon sites containing core and blade technology, the punch may have been used for indirect percussion flaking of stone tools and preforms.
A physical one-dimensional heat transfer model of fast ice growth was used to investigate the interannual variability of maximum fast ice thickness at four sites in the High Arctic over the period 1950-89. The insulating role of snow cover was found to be the most important factor, explaining 30-60% of the variance in maximum ice thickness values. Other snow-related processes such as slushing and density variations were estimated to explain a further 15-30% of the variance. In contrast, annual variation in air temperatures explained less than 4% of the variance in maximum ice thickness. No evidence was found for the systematic ice thinning trend anticipated from greenhouse gas-induced global warming. However, recent ice thinning and thickening trends at two sites (Alert and Resolute) are consistent with changes in the average depth of snow covering the ice and may be explained by changes in cyclone frequencies. A response surface sensitivity analysis following Fowler and de Freitas (1900) indicated the High Arctic landfast ice regime would be more sensitive to air temperature variations under a warmer, snowier environment.
New paleobotanical data (mainly palynological) are reported from Miocene beds of the New Siberian Islands. The palynoflora has a number of distinctive features: the presence of typical hypoarctic forms, the high content taxa representing dark coniferous assemblages and the considerable proportion of small-leaved forms. Floristic comparison with the paleofloras or the Beaufort Formation in arctic Canada allows interpretation of the evolution of the Arctic as a landscape region during Miocene-Pliocene time. The paper is a preliminary analysis of the mechanisms of arctic florogenesis. The model of an "adaptive landscape" is considered in relation to the active eustatic drying of polar shelves.
Breeding densities, biogeography, and nest depredation of birds on Igloolik Island, N.W.T.
Arctic, v. 45, no. 3, Sept. 1992, p. 295-303, 1 map
ASTIS record 32512
The avifauna of Igloolik Island and immediate vicinity was studied during two breeding seasons in 1985-86. This is the first study to compile an intensive record of avifaunal migration patterns and nesting activity, density and success for Igloolik Island. Data for these years are supplemented by the observations of earlier explorers and researchers. During our two seasons of survey, we recorded 40 species of birds, of which 25 nested on the island. Combining our records with previously published data, a total of 48 species have been recorded, with 30 species nesting. Several interspecies matings of gulls and the first confirmed breeding record of purple sandpiper (Calidris maritima) for the Melville Peninsula area were recorded. The density of breeding birds on Igloolik Island (28.5 pairs/sq. m) is similar to other eastern high arctic sites at that latitude. Issues related to the biogeographic comparisons of arctic sites are discussed. In late August, the eastern end of the island acts as a significant staging area for gull species, oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) and arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea). A combined average of 58.3% of the nests of six species were depredated. As many as 73% of red-throated loon (Gavia stellata) and 93% of arctic tern nests suffered mainly human-related egg predation.
Sightings of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) at presumed nest sites in eastern Hudson Bay, summer 1985
Arctic, v. 45, no. 3, Sept. 1992, p. 304-305, 1 map
ASTIS record 32513
Eastern Hudson Bay breeding distribution of the peregrine falcon is poorly documented. We report the observation of immature falcons and behaviour of adult birds that strongly suggest the existence of a breeding population of peregrine falcons on islands near the Nastapoka River.
Seven colonies of Ivory gulls comprising 330 adults were discovered on nunataks emerging from the Manson Icefield of southeastern Ellesmere Island. This brings to total 33 the number of active colonies that have been located in North America over the 14 years since the first was discovered.
William Edward Parry's "Second voyage for the discovery of a north-west passage," during the years 1821 to 1823, took him to the shores of Melville Peninsula in Canada's Eastern Arctic. The expedition spent its first winter on a small island east of Repulse Bay, appropriately named Winter Island by Parry. The second winter was passed on Igloolik Island at the eastern end of an ice-strewn strait separating the north shore of Melville Peninsula from Baffin Island. Parry was to name this strait "Fury and Hecla" in commemoration of the two ships then under his command. In terms of its stated exploration goal - the discovery of a northern sea route from the Atlantic to the Pacific - the voyage was a failure. ... The expedition, however, was not without its achievements. The many scientific investigations carried out by Parry and his officers added considerably to contemporary European knowledge of the lands and sea to the north of Hudson Bay. But the enduring legacy of the expedition is found in the accounts of early 19th-century Inuit life published in 1824 by Parry and George Francis Lyon, commander of the Hecla, on their return to England. These remarkable accounts, together with the unpublished journals of William Harvey Hooper, purser of the Fury, William Mogg, clerk of the Hecla, and George Fisher, the expedition's astronomer, are among the first truly detailed descriptions we have of Inuit in Canada's Eastern Arctic. ...
... Harold first went to the Arctic in 1944 as a Hudson's Bay Company seaman aboard the Nascopie. Thus began a lifelong association with the Arctic. In 1945 he joined the Department of Transport as a radiosonde technician. In 1947 he transferred to the Defence Research Board (DRB) Radio Propagation Laboratory and was one of the first people to winter-over at the newly established joint Canada-U.S.A. weather station at Resolute Bay. Subsequently, he became involved in ionospheric research at the DRB Radio Physics Laboratory, the Prince Alberta Radar Laboratory and the Telecommunications Establishment. As a technician and later technical officer he coauthored a number of papers on radio propagation in the auroral zone. In 1961, Harold was asked to investigate the abandoned Soviet drifting station NP-7, then located in Baffin Bay. That experience led to a meeting with Dr. G. Hattersley-Smith, of the DRB Directorate of Physical Research, and a significant career change. Harold began working in High Arctic oceanography and glaciology and quickly established a reputation in remote arctic science operations and logistics. ... In 1981 he retired from government service. However, he was not the type of person who could ever properly retire and turn his back on his beloved Arctic, as I was fortunate enough to soon learn. I was privileged to be able to work with Harold throughout the 1980s, .... I shall always remember the experiences we had together and will always be indebted to Harold for his friendship and the knowledge he passed on to me. ... He was modest about his achievements, never expected any reward other than thanks, and never sought any honours. In 1988 he was elected a Fellow of AINA in recognition of his significant contributions to High Arctic research. This was the least that could be done for someone who served Canadian arctic science with quiet dedication for almost five decades. Harold will be missed but, I hope, not forgotten.
Walter I. Wittmann, an arctic oceanographer and expert on sea ice, died at age 73 on 19 March 1992 .... During a career that spanned nearly five decades, he was a prominent figure in many of the early efforts to describe, understand, and predict the behavior of arctic sea ice and icebergs. He resided in the Washington, D.C., area, where he had been the director of the Polar Oceanography Division at the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) prior to his retirement from the federal government in 1974. ... He established the first methodologies used in the United States for the observation and prediction of icebergs and sea ice. He spent time in Halifax, Nova Scotia, assisting the Canadians in organizing their own ice observing and forecasting capability, which evolved into the Canadian Ice Centre now located in Ottawa. Walter Wittmann served as head of U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office's Sea Ice Branch and later as the initial director of the Polar Oceanography Division from 1962 through 1974. ... During the period 1974-78, Mr. Wittmann was affiliated with the Arctic Institute of North America. He formulated methodologies for sea ice prediction and outlined and implemented feasibility studies concerning the effects of ice and environment on the conduct of various types of oil and gas exploration and activity in ice-covered environments. He also served for a number of years as a staff scientist with the U.S. Navy's Arctic Submarine Laboratory. During the 1980s, he worked for Sea Ice Consultants, Inc., and Integrated Systems Analysts as a sea ice consultant. The list of Mr. Wittmann's scientific writings and other professional contributions is a long one, but he leaves a legacy that is much broader than his own record indicates. While at NAVOCEANO he trained many of the current generation of arctic scientists in the study of a region that most never suspected would become their career focus. ... He managed to combine personal concern with technical understanding in a way that made lasting impressions on those who worked under him and with him. ...