... after four years of dedicated and extremely creative service, Dr. Gordon Hodgson steps down as academic editor of Arctic and Information North. His tenure in this position has been notable in many ways and caps a career in government service and academic life that has touched hundreds of graduate students and aspiring Arctic authors. ... In the trenchant editorials appearing over his by-line, Gordon Hodgson has written his thoughts on arctic sovereignty, the need for a Nobel prize for arctic socio-economic studies, the desirability of creating a circumpolar university and a comprehensive northern on-line library system capable of text retrieval and delivery. ... Whatever the response, Arctic's reader's have come to expect the editorial airing of complex northern issues, and the editorial page will continue under the leadership of our new editor Dr. Karen McCullough. ...
The use of radio telemetry as an aid in the retrieval of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) struck during the annual Eskimo subsistence hunt in Alaska
Arctic, v. 42, no. 3, Sept. 1989, p. 189-198, ill., map
ASTIS record 29324
Over past years the number of bowhead whales struck and lost during the annual subsistence hunt by Eskimos in northern Alaska has averaged about 50%. This is a significant number of lost animals, especially for a species considered to be rare and endangered, and steps must be taken to reduce this loss. A project was initiated in 1983 to determine the feasibility of using radio telemetry to aid in the recovery of bowhead whales struck during the subsistence hunt. The radio transmitter was placed in the whaling float to minimize the problem of signal attenuation by marine waters. The stainless steel attachment plates worked flawlessly to stabilize the radio transmitter inside the float and to seal the hole cut in the float to insert the radio transmitter. With directional receiving antennas and receivers, floats could be detected at several kilometres from boats and at over 40 km from aircraft. Fifteen whaling crews were instrumented for the fall subsistence hunts beginning in 1983 at Kaktovik and in 1986 at Nuiqsut. Eight of 12 whales struck were retrieved during the course of this study, 2 of the 8 because they were found by virtue of the radio signals transmitted from the floats 11 and 48 km offshore. Floats attached to the 4 whales that were lost during this period were radio-located but the harpoons had pulled out of 2 of these whales. The other two floats were not attached to whales when found and the distances from shore were too far to safely retrieve the equipment to determine the exact reason for loss. A 67% retrieval rate was achieved during this study, up from 50% had radio telemetry not been used. Radio telemetry has proven to be a successful technique to support the subsistence hunt for the bowhead whale, and the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission is currently expanding its use to other villages where relatively ice-free waters are conducive to its use.
In the Eastern Arctic the Inuktitut language is as strong as it has ever been in terms of public recognition. But there are some reasons for concern: code-switching, subtractive bilingualism, etc. This article addresses this apparent contradiction by explaining the current language situation as a linguistic conflict. The social history of the Arctic has induced a basic inequality between English, the dominant speech form, and Inuktitut. This situation, called diglossia, entails a gradual loss of the native language among the younger generations. The study of a sample of Inuit students shows that Inuktitut is still the preferred language for addressing one's parents, but it is much less so, especially in the Baffin region, with siblings and friends. It is argued that only a change in the social and political conditions of the Inuit could reverse this trend.
An analysis of the processes behind socio-economic development is necessary to further the understanding of contemporary Inuit conditions in arctic Canada. It is apparent that many of the realities and reasons underlying development in the North are similar to those in the Third World. The term development encompasses strategies and programs to improve living conditions of the target population, processes that either directly or indirectly transform indigenous economies into ones like those of the Western world, and theories that seek to explain these changes and their outcomes. People from government, business, and religion were the agents of development in both Canada and Africa. One of the most overt changes to indigenous societies brought about by these agents was a shift to a modern market-oriented economy. Education is part of a development process and contributed to this change. Education in arctic Canada and a Third Word country, Zambia, is based on teaching local residents to participate in a Euro-North American economic system. In both countries, however, the national or regional economies cannot sustain employment for many of the educated indigenous people. In Lwawu, a remote part of Zambia, this has led to social tensions and polarization between socio-economic classes. In arctic Canada, it has contributed to confusion over one's cultural identity and an inability to participate economically in either the modern or traditional sectors. The Inuit face added difficulties in that to obtain wage employment they must integrate within national cultural, economic, and political systems governed by people who are of different races and cultures and not indigenous to Canada. The end result of these and similar situations is that indigenous people are not necessarily better off than before contact with development agents.
Unprecedented needle loss of mature forest stands occurred in natural Swedish montane forests during 1987. Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) needles turned reddish-brown during the spring and early summer. An intensive study within a severely damaged pine population indicated that damage was primarily due to a coincidence of shallow snow cover and severe cold from mid-December 1986 to mid-January 1987. This resulted in unusually cold soils and late thawing of the soils. Acute drought stress then developed in late winter during a period of sunny weather and great diurnal temperature ranges. Thus, the study supports the classical theory of winter desiccation as an important component in population ecology of cold marginal forests in this part of the world. Historical data indicate that the present kind of damage was more frequent prior to the present century. It is suggested that cold-induced dieback is an important, but often overlooked, disturbance process in northern boreal forests relevant to Holocene forest history.
Siberian goats and North American deer : a contextual approach to the translation of Russian common names for Alaskan mammals
Arctic, v. 42, no. 3, Sept. 1989, p. 227-231
ASTIS record 29328
The word iaman was used by 19-century Russian speakers in Sitka, Alaska, to refer to locally procured artiodactyls. The term originally meant "domesticated goat" in eastern Siberia and has usually been translated as "wild sheep" or "wild goat" in the American context. Physical evidence in the form of deer bones recovered during archeological excavations dating to the Russian period in Sitka suggested a reexamination of the context in which the word iaman was used by the Russians. Russian, English, Latin and German historical and scientific literature describing the animal were examined for the context in which the word was used. These contexts and 19th-century Russian dictionary definitions equating wild goats with small deer substantiate the hypothesis that the word iaman referred to the Sitka black-tailed deer by Russian speakers living in Sitka.
Baffin Island fjord macrobenthos : bottom communities and environmental significance
Arctic, v. 42, no. 3, Sept. 1989, p. 232-247, ill., maps
SAFE contribution, no. 7
ASTIS record 29329
Cluster analysis of the benthos from ten Baffin Island fjords defines six faunal associations. The macrotidal Sunneshine Fiord has a shallow kelp-related Isopod Association. Cambridge Fiord supports a shallow Onuphid Association controlled by gravel from dropstones. A widespread Portlandia Association typified the shallow zones of more recently glaciated fjords where sedimentation rates are high. An Ophiuroid-Anemone Association was defined from current-affected submarine channel environments. A Maldanid Association covered the greatest area in all fjords and passed into an Elasipod Association in the deepest water in Cambridge Fiord. Fjord-head faunas are used to model ecological changes accompanying glacier retreat, from monospecific Portlandia, through mature Portlandia Association to Onuphid Association accompanied by diverse filter feeders and herbivores. Chlamys islandica was found living in Cambridge Fiord, which substantially increases its northern limit.
There is presently little specific information on the molt migrations of scoters in the Nearctic. We conducted migration watches from 21 June to 31 July 1984 (total of 96 h) and from 5 to 15 July 1985 (total of 36 h) during daylight hours to estimate abundance and species composition of scoters engaged in a molt migration at Cape Peirce, southeast Bering Sea, Alaska. We counted 22,897 scoters moving west past the observation site in 1984, the year in which we probably made observations over most of the migration period. Allowing for daylight hours without watches, an estimated 66,500 scoters passed in 1984. Peak passage occurred on 11 July in both years. Species composition of migrants in 1984 was approximately 77% white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca), 12% surf scoters (M. perspicillata), and 11% black scoters (M. nigra). Most of the migrants were adult males, probably migrating from breeding grounds in Interior Alaska. Our findings suggest that a large and presently undescribed molting area of white-winged scoters exists somewhere in the waters of western Alaska or eastern Siberia.
Small amounts of useful power may be generated in polar or subpolar regions during the winter period by placing a heat engine between a large body of water (near 0 degrees C), acting as a heat source, and the atmosphere (near -25 degrees C), acting as a heat sink. The scheme consists of a fuelless modular system operating on the Carnot cycle. Power is extracted by a reciprocating vapour engine drawing saturated vapour from a water-heated evaporator and exhausting to an air-cooled condenser from which nearly saturated liquid is returned to the evaporator using a reciprocating feed pump. The thermal performance model incorporates both the engine cycle power and the parasitic losses, the latter being incurred as a result of circulating the working fluid (ammonia), pumping water through the evaporator and blowing air through the condenser. Curves indicate power levels in excess of 1 kW, with thermal efficiencies around 5%. The power curves show a maximum with respect to speed. The principal difficulties with this scheme are in heat exchanger design in near-freezing water. The principal advantages are small power levels, flexibility through modular construction and reduction of the capital and operating costs associated with the supply of energy to northern regions.
Investment strategies for northern cash windfalls : learning from the Alaskan experience
Arctic, v. 42, no. 3, Sept. 1989, p. 265-276, ill., map
ASTIS record 29332
The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (1971) and the creation of the Alaska Permanent Fund (1976) provided Native and non-Native Alaskans with two means of trust capital investment. To date Native Alaskans have largely chosen a strategy of investment in local established and/or new businesses, while the Permanent Fund has pursued a portfolio management strategy. Both investment means were examined against their stated ends (for the former: profit, social responsibility and cultural preservation; for the latter: savings, profit, and dividend distribution). It is concluded that business risk investment in an isolated and remote northern state characterized by economic reliance on externally controlled business cycles is inherently risky and that a strategy of international portfolio management has paid far superior dividends. Given that the current situation in the Canadian North (two Northern Accord agreements-in-principle and the Dene/Metis and Yukon Comprehensive Land Claim agreements-in-principle achieved in 1988) parallels the situation in Alaska in the 1970s, the authors propose a strategy for the creation of a model developmental natural resource trust fund based on the best features of the Alaskan models. This model fund combines a portfolio management trust philosophy with the goal of sustainable economic development in the quest for northern fiscal autonomy.
Influence du couvert de glace sur l'étendue du panache de La Grande Rivière (Baie-James) [Influence of ice cover on the extent of the plume of La Grande Riviere (James Bay)]
De Margerie, S.
Arctic, v. 42, no. 3, Sept. 1989, p. 278-284, ill., maps
ASTIS record 29333
As a result of the La Grande Riviere hydroelectric complex development, the winter inflow of freshwater from La Grande Riviere into the ice-covered James Bay has increased from 500/m³/s under natural conditions to more than 4000/m³/s during peak power production. A field program to monitor the related changes on the freshwater plume into the coastal waters of James Bay for the 1986-87 winter season was undertaken. These data were combined with previous observations for lower discharge (1980 and 1984). Although the plume area increased markedly for the discharge values ranging from 500 to 1500 cu m/s, the data showed very little change in the extent of the coastal plume for discharge varying between 1500 and 4000 m³/s. Contrary to earlier predictions, this is explained by the effect of the land-fast ice zone, beyond which intense mixing occurs, rapidly diffusing the freshwater. The study also showed the importance of fortnightly tidal variations, which are expected to have a larger effect on vertical mixing and plume dynamics than changes in runoff.
À la suite de l'aménagement du complexe hydroélectrique de La Grande Rivière, l'apport d'eau douce de La Grande Rivière à la baie James, alors que cette dernière est couverte de glace, est passé d'environ 500 m³/s en conditions naturelles à plus de 4000 m³/s en production de pointe. Une campagne intensive de mesures a été réalisée durant l'hiver 1986-87 afin d'évaluer les changements de son panache d'eau douce dans les eaux côtières de la baie James. Les résultats de cette campagne sont comparés aux observations antérieures alors que la centrale débitait de façon moindre (1980 et 1984). Bien que la superficie du panache ait sensiblement augmenté pour des débits variant de 500 à 1500 m³/s, les résultats indiquent peu de changements dans l'étendue du panache côtier pour des débits variant de 1500 à 4000 m³/s. Contrairement aux premières prédictions, en effet, les glaces fixées au rivage constituent une limite au-delà de laquelle existe une zone de mélange intense qui diffuse rapidement l'eau douce. L'étude met également en évidence l'importance des variations semi-mensuelles de la marée dont l'effet sur le mélange et le dynamisme du panache serait plus important que celui dû aux variations du débit.
"Motivation!" That single word, spoken with a strong French accent and remarkable conviction, resonates in the ears of hundreds of northern Canadian cross-country skiers, past and present. The speaker, Father J.M. Mouchet, O.M.E., played an instrumental role in introducing the sport to the North in the 1960s. His remarkable dedication and enthusiasm for cross-country skiing - for the North, and for the Native people - has left a mark on the entire region. ... Always an active sportsman, Mouchet was very impressed with the Natives' physical fitness, which he attributed to their active lifestyle and adaptation to their environment. He further believed that the Natives faced tremendous social and economic changes as a result of th expansion of non-Native society in the North. Physical achievement through cross-country skiing, he believed, offered Native children the self-esteem and the physical and mental toughness to deal with rapidly changing times. Mouchet put these ideas into action. He organized cross-country skiing teams in Old Crow and, with the assistance of others who shared his vision, in Inuvik. The Native participants in the Territorial Experimental Ski Training (TEST) Programme proved the correctness of his vision. A number of the skiers that he brought into the sport became members of Canada's national ski team; the Firth sisters, Sharon and Shirley, are examples. Native skiers dominated skiing competitions throughout the North for a number of years. ... Mouchet moved his training scheme to Whitehorse, where it was introduced into the elementary school system. From modest beginnings - with seven pairs of skis at Takhini Elementary - the cross-country ski training program became one of the most popular participation sports in the territory. ... Father Mouchet now resides in Whitehorse. He continues to be active in cross-country skiing, showing the same dedication and encouragement that he first brought to the Canadian North over forty years ago. ...
Lee Porter died unexpectedly in Seattle, Washington, on 18 January 1989. ... [After initially training in journalism] Lee became a specialist in the Pleistocene biostratigraphy of arctic regions, particularly Alaska and the U.S.S.R. ... Lee's subsequent career took her to the British Museum of Natural History on a research fellowship, then to teaching and administration at Northern Arizona University. She also worked as a consultant for several engineering firms, applying her knowledge of Quaternary deposits to environmental problems, such as geologic hazards, site stability, and waste disposal. At the time of her death, she was working as an engineering geologist for the California State Department of Transportation. ...