The editorial policy of the journal Arctic, with respect to page charges and academic freedom, is discussed.
Two new species of patellogastropod limpets from the Miocene-Pliocene of Alaska are described - Patelloida gradatus new species from the Unga Conglomerate Member of the Bear Lake Formation at Cape Aliaksin, Alaska Peninsula, southwestern Alaska, and Niveotectura myrakeenae new species from the Yakataga Formation in the northeastern Gulf of Alaska. A third species from the Narrow Cape Formation of Kodiak Island may be referrable to Patelloida sookensis Clark and Arnold, 1923, a species previously known only from Vancouver Island, Canada. These and other species of Patelloidinae dominated the northeastern Pacific patellogastropod fauna for over 60 m/y. The presence in Alaska of these three warm-water limpet species may be related to the middle Miocene warm-water event that is well documented elsewhere in the North Pacific. However, regional cooling during the late Neogene drove this predominantly tropical group from higher latitudes, leaving them poorly represented in the Holocene boreal fauna.
Implementing the next economy in a unified context : A case study of the Paddle Prairie Mall Corporation
Arctic, v. 41, no. 3, Sept. 1988, p. 173-182, ill.
ASTIS record 28557
A recent paper entitled "Native and Local Economics: A Consideration of Economic Evolution and the Next Economy" (Robinson and Ghostkeeper, 1987:138-144) by the authors proposed a model for community-based native business development based upon the fusing of community culture with corporate culture in the information and service economy. This model has now been implemented by a Metis entrepreneur in the northern Alberta settlement of Paddle Prairie and is evaluated using the "unified approach" to economic development described by Higgins and Higgins (1979). In this way the new venture's performance is assessed against the following criteria: employment generation, income creation, contribution to regional ecological harmony and maximization of cultural enrichment. It is concluded that the Paddle Prairie Mall Corporation is a practical demonstration of the unified approach in Canada's mid-North and that the "Metis way of doing things," born of the bush economy, is an indigenous Canadian variant of the unified approach that acknowledges the importance of sociocultural and ecological factors in development planning. It remains to be seen whether or not the Metis way of doing things has an Inuit or Indian analogue and to what degree the next economy model can be equally well applied in non-Metis native communities.
Observations on the behavioral responses of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) to active geophysical vessels in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea
Arctic, v. 41, no. 3, Sept. 1988, p. 183-194, ill.
ASTIS record 28558
The responses of bowhead whales to controlled approaches by geophysical vessels producing airgun blasts were observed during the course of four field experiments conducted in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea in September 1984. Behavioral responses included shorter surfacing and dive times, fewer blows per surfacing, longer blow intervals and subtle to overt changes in surface behaviors. Subtle behavioral responses occurred at 3.5 and 8.2 km with received airgun noise levels of 142 and 157 dB respectively (all levels in dB re 1 µPa). Partial avoidance (i.e., some whales leaving the observation area while others remained) occurred at ranges of 3.5 and 7.6 km, with sound levels of 142 and 158 dB respectively. Total avoidance (i.e., all whales leaving the observation area) occurred at 1.3, 7.2, 3.5 and 2.9 km, with corresponding sound levels of 152, 165, 178 and 165 dB. The similarities among experiments reported here support the conclusion that short-term behavioral changes occur when bowhead whales are exposed to airgum blasts from approaching geophysical vessels at ranges <10 km. These disturbance efforts wane within one hour after a disturbance; long-term effects on social, behavioral or physiologic parameters are not known at this time.
Theories of cultural diffusion and acculturation specify the conditions under which new behaviour, norms, and values are adopted. Both education and employment in modern enterprises have been identified as highly conducive to acculturation. This paper focuses on formal employment training as a possible agent of cultural change among native peoples in Canada's Northwest Territories. It analyzes all job training programs administered by governments over the 1971-83 period, presenting systematic data on them for the first time. During this period, the official Canadian government position about northern development was that the needs of indigenous peoples were to prevail over resource exploitation. At the same time, northern residents were to be offered training so that they might benefit from economic development by taking part in the expanding wage economy. Hence, officially, native peoples were to have a "choice of futures" - to be enabled to combine elements of southern and northern ways of life or to choose freely between them. But choices may be subtly shaped. Here we examine the structure rather than the explicit content of job training programs. We show that most programs operated by governments have been delivered in such a way as to stimulate rapid acculturation among trainees, by requiring relocation, the use of English, and adherence to fixed schedules. In recent years, some shift in program structure has been evident, so that the programs are delivered in a manner that better accommodates northern indigenous cultures. This raises the perennial, thorny question of whether segmented and obvious cultural contact is preferable to diffuse and co-optive interaction.
In the summer of 1898 the trawler Helgoland sailed north from Germany, bound for Svalbard. On board was a scientific expedition, the Deutsche Expedition in das Nordliche Eismeer, led by Fritz Romer and Fritz Schaudinn, and also a party of sportsmen led by Theodor Lerner. The main foci of the scientific effort were marine biology and ornithology. Pushing the ship to its limit, often in quite heavy ice and foul weather, the expedition pursued a complicated course around the archipelago. In terms of marine biology her scientists occupied 51 dredging stations and 82 plankton stations and collected an extremely rich assemblage of marine organisms. Perhaps the most exciting were a group of stations occupied on the continental slope to the north of Svalbard. Helgoland's captain, Kapitan Rudiger, made a number of corrections and additions to the map of Svalbard; his most significant contribution was the first accurate map of Kong Karls Land. Helgoland was also the first vessel to circumnavigate Nordaustlandet in a counterclockwise direction.
In the upper basin of the Porcupine River, the subhorizontal caves of Bear Cave and Tsi-it-toh-Choh mountains are characterized by a very rich ice zone. The authors propose a model for the build-up of ice based on the formation of hexagonal ice sublimation crystals on the cold walls of underground passages. In this model, water freezes and thaws many times, causing a series of different forms from the ceiling to the floor of the caves. This process will sometimes provoke total obstruction of a passage due to particular topoclimatic conditions or a change of climate, notably an increase in atmospheric humidity. During the summer the passage where the ice is located is preceded by a warm and humid passage and is followed by a cold and extremely dry passage, in which are preserved fragments of wood, animal faeces and remains of small mammals.
Iceberg scour investigations and sedimentology of the southeast Baffin Island continental shelf
Arctic, v. 41, no. 3, Sept. 1988, p. 221-230, ill., maps
ASTIS record 28562
High-resolution sidescan imagery of the southeast Baffin Island continental margin illustrates a typical high-latitude shelf, extensively and deeply scoured by the southward drift of icebergs. Evidence for iceberg scouring on the shallower inner shelf is not clearly manifested, reflecting the very thin sediment cover overlying the bedrock. On the deeper mid- and outer shelves, the iceberg scours are generally much more clearly defined. These deeper water scours, which are kilometres long, up to 90 m wide and 4.4 m deep, are not a recent occurrence. Instead they are relict and probably predate the Holocene/latest Pleistocene, when sea levels were relatively much lower. Two depth-related surficial sedimentary environments (an inner shelf and mid- and outer shelf environment) are recognized in the survey area. A thin (few centimetres thick) covering of coarse sand and/or gravel with negligible amounts of silt and clay dominate the inner shelf down to about the 220 m contour, and because of this sparse covering, the underlying bedrock is very often exposed. The mid- and outer shelves, which have a sediment cover up to 7 m thick, are texturally very variable. This variable texture reflects the effects of scouring iceberg keels in dislodging sediment and the subsequent displacement and redistribution of sediment. Underwater photographs of current generated bedforms suggest further bottom current redistribution of displaced scoured sediments and concurrent active sediment transport on the outer continental shelf.
Nursing bouts by 15 muskox (Ovibos moschatus) calves were measured to evaluate potential use of nursing behaviour as an indicator of muskox responses to helicopters. The muskox calves nursed 225 times during 313 hours of observation: 63% under undisturbed conditions; 12% when helicopter overflights took place; and 25% following those overflights. During exposure to the helicopter, the calf moved to the cow and then sometimes took the opportunity to nurse. Younger calves nursed relatively longer and more often than older calves; they also performed 68% of the nursings that occurred during helicopter overflights. Frequency and duration of nursing bouts are known to be related to the age of calves. This paper demonstrates that these aspects of nursing vary within or among muskox herds and concludes that observations of nursing at this level of effort cannot be employed with any confidence as a monitoring indicator of muskox response to helicopters.
The spiral in the tusk of the narwhal has been fancifully, but never satisfactorily, explained. Spiral growths are common in the animal kingdom and share the feature of having straight axes. A curved tusk would hinder the narwhal swimming; a spiral mode of growth ensures overall straightness even if the tusk grows irregularly. The need to keep the tusk straight completely and satisfactorily explains the spiral.
Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) feed mainly on benthic invertebrates in waters less than 80 m deep, and they have been presumed to be incapable of diving to greater depths. Reported here are seven walruses whose stomachs contained significant amounts of benthic sediments and food, some of which must have been ingested in waters more than 100 m deep. Walruses may be able to dive to depths much greater than 100 m, but they usually have little reason to do so, since their benthic prey are most abundant in shallower waters.
Johnny Neyelle is an outspoken individual, one whose self-confidence has enabled him to take action in situations where others remained quiet, and whose range of abilities and talents is very great. Yet the basic store of his livelihood and family relations is a familiar one to Dene people of his era. ... In his seventies, Johnny still goes out on the land to hunt and trap, as he has done all his life. He goes by himself, which is rather unusual, although these days he carries a two-way radio with him. As times have changed, it is not always easy to find family members or partners to go on the land, and the common alternative is not to go. ...
Jim Netsiapik Kilabuk was part of the dramatic whaling era, of the relatively tranquil fur-trading era that followed and of the first years of drastic change in the 1960s. Kilabuk served as assistant to, and mentor for, a series of Hudson's Bay Company managers. His many duties, and often those of his family, included interpreting and mediating when sealskins and fox furs were traded over the counter, using the brass Company tokens, and supervising the preparation of beluga and narwhal skins and oil after the communal whale hunts that continued until the early 1960s. At ship time he organized the off-loading of supplies and the loading of the year's produce, involving every man, woman and child available. ... The third era of change for the people of Cumberland Sound, and for all Inuit, is hard to label. It is characterized by urbanization, rapid communication and an ever-accelerating technical change common to much of the world. ... [Kilabuk excelled as a mediator between Inuit and non-Inuit factions, he taught white administrators his language and about the land. He was also instrumental in Pangnirtung becoming the first locality to adopt surnames among its Inuit population.] For most of his life, Kilabuk worked to bring about understanding and harmony between Inuit and Qallunaat in his home region. He was an able pilot through the ebb, flow and turbulence of culture change and is remembered by many with gratitude and affection.
Clarke was born on 14 June 1909 in Kerwood, Ontario, the son of a Methodist minister. As he described it, an early interest in natural history led him to become "a bird watcher, and in time a hunter, and then also a collector, and the lines of least resistance made me a wildlife biologist." [Clarke is best known for his work on the Thelon Game Sanctuary] ... presented in A Biological Investigation of the Thelon Game Sanctuary. Although the report had value as the first systematic and complete list of barren-ground vertebrates, it also provided important information on wildlife use by Inuit and northern Indians, the population cycles of fur-bearing mammals, and caribou and muskoxen. In the section on caribou, Clarke examined the contemporary lack of scientific knowledge about northern wildlife. ... In many ways, Clarke's ideas were ahead of his time. He argued for increased study and protection of caribou, abandoning preconceived ideas about predators, favoring native interests over those of whites in decisions regarding wildlife and discarding ineffectual and misguided wolf control programs. ... In the conclusion he wrote, "We should always be careful that in our search for new resources we do not destroy what we already have.... If we can keep it [the North] a true wilderness, its spiritual value will remain, but if the wild herds are lost it will not be a wilderness, but a desert." ... A pioneer in biological research in the North, C.H.D. Clarke lived to see the region transformed by social, political, economic and technological forces. He recognized his good fortune at having been active "When things were still fresh" and was reluctant to return to places he once knew, for fear that they would have been destroyed. Near the end of his life he wrote, "To me the Sanctuary will always be what it was in my time." ...
On 24 March 1988 Canada lost one of its pioneer polar air navigators in the sudden death of Kenneth Maclure while vacationing with his wife Margaret (Blackmore) in Mexico. ... In 1941, ... Maclure proposed a grid system for measuring direction in high latitudes to overcome the problem created by the extreme convergency of the meridians. ... he was the first Canadian to reach the North Geographic Pole. Maclure's grid direction proposal was thoroughly tested and proved to be a simple technique for measuring direction on polar flights. ... Maclure's grid was altered to further simplify navigation on high latitude flights originating from North America. [He participated in a number of scientific flights across the Canadian Arctic to Alaska including:] ... the Ptarmigan weather flights by the USAF out of Alaska over the Arctic Ocean and Operation Cariberg, to study the migration of caribou from timberline to the barrens and to study the amount and state of ice in Hudson's Bay. ... His work included acoustic and electromagnetic research in ice-filled waters, which necessitated many visits to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. ... This quiet, modest Canadian, a major contributor to modern-day polar air navigation, will be greatly missed by his former associates and all who knew him. ...