The editor shares his concept for a circumpolar university from which he hopes will emerge a coalition of understanding among the circumpolar people. What he feels is needed is some kind of circumpolar vision, a new perspective or view.
Land ownership and land management in Alaska have changed dramatically since 1980. Native people have become owners of relatively small tracts of private land surrounded by large federal and state holdings. These public lands are the responsibility of a variety of agencies, each of which is preparing land management plans to guide how the land is to be used. Native people, to protect their traditional use of the land, must participate successfully in the preparation of these plans. Four problems inhibit participation: (1) native people are overloaded by the large number of plans, (2) the "world view" of native cultures does not readily accept planning, (3) the public meeting used by all agencies is an inappropriate forum for native participation, and (4) differences in communication style complicate discussion between native people and non-native planners. Potential solutions include coordinating planning efforts to reduce the number of plans, use of more appropriate participation methods, and training of non-native planners in cross-cultural communication and native people in land management planning.
Observations of the "thermal offset" in near-surface mean annual ground temperatures at several sites near Mayo, Yukon Territory, Canada
Arctic, v. 41, no. 2, June 1988, p. 99-104, ill.
ASTIS record 28549
Temperature profiles in the surface layers of the ground were measured frequently over a 12-month period beginning in May 1984 at seven sites near Mayo, Yukon Territory. Permafrost is present at six of the sites. The mean annual ground temperature profile at each site displays a thermal offset, with measured mean annual temperatures in the active layer up to 1.7 degrees C higher than in permafrost. Similar mean annual soil temperature profiles are presented from other stations in northern Canada and the U.S.S.R. Such near-surface inflections are not included in conventional models of the thermal regime of permafrost. The data indicate that equilibrium or aggrading permafrost may be present at sites where the mean annual ground surface temperature is above 0 degrees C.
The contribution of country food to the diets of residents of Makkovik, Labrador, reflects the seasonal availability of different species on the northern Labrador coast. The nutrient density of the wild food component of the food supply varies from season to season according to the relative contribution of the various species harvested. In the summer, the level of calcium is somewhat higher than in most other seasons, reflecting the large contribution of fish. In early fall, the nutrient density for iron is the lowest for all seasons, and the level of calcium decreases to about half of that of summer. In late fall, the nutrient density of the country food harvested for household use has the highest density of thiamin, reflecting the contribution from the migratory birds, and the second highest density of iron, reflecting the increase in percentage contribution of seals. In winter the iron density is approximately twice that of other seasons. The level of calcium increases, reflecting the contribution from partridge and ptarmigan. In early spring the large contribution of caribou provides a high protein content, while for riboflavin it is the highest of any season. In late spring the nutrient density reflects the large percentage of fish. Dietary patterns of a population depending on country food for much of its food supply change from one season to another, and nutrient intakes also vary from season to season. These factors must be considered when evaluating dietary intakes and making nutritional inferences.
The developmental scholar Andre Gunder Frank has constructed a model to explain regional underdevelopment within developed nations. Underdevelopment is defined as the inability to control the rents from local resources and limited input into political decision making. The model is based on the concepts of metropolis and satellite, the satellite being a region that is politically, socially, and economically dependent on the metropolis, Frank applies this concept to the Brazilian Amazon as a satellite of southeastern Brazil and concludes that the Amazon region has underdeveloped due to the abrupt entry and withdrawal of capitalist investment. This article applies the Frank model to the Canadian North as a satellite of southern Canada and, using the historical examples of the fur trade, the Klondike gold rush, and the whaling and petroleum booms, concludes by noting that the entry and collapse of capitalist investment in the Canadian Arctic has led to a similar form of underdevelopment or dependency in that region. Underdevelopment and dependency in both regions are seen as a result of the collapse of economic, and primarily resource extraction, booms.
The USS Nautilus (SSN-571) was the first vessel to cross the Arctic Basin via the North Pole in early August 1958. During this expedition almost continuous acoustic under-ice thickness distribution profiles were recorded. This article presents an overall statistical analysis of the under-ice draft measurements obtained during this historic cruise. Geographic areas found to have distinct under-ice-characteristics and ice compositions are identified. Principal findings are: (1) Nautilus recorded an overall mean under-ice draft of 3.68 m across the Arctic Basin; (2) the under-ice topography becomes progressively more severe when proceeding from the Canadian to the Eurasian side of the Arctic Basin; (3) the Canada Basin was observed to contain the most moderate under-ice topography and the greatest number of open water and referent polynyas and leads along the transpolar route taken by Nautilus; (4) Nautilus encountered the most severe under-ice topography of the voyage over the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge; and (5) an overall Arctic Basin mean of 2.6% open water/new ice (<30 cm) was encountered during her voyage beneath the sea ice cover of the Arctic Ocean.
Nineteenth-century exploration of the Canadian Arctic, primarily directed by the British Admiralty, had scientific as well as geographical goals. Many expeditions, including Franklin's, had a major scientific mandate. A northwest passage was the initial inspiration, but geomagnetism (under Edward Sabine's guidance), meteorology, zoology, geology, botany, and ethnology were the principal sciences that benefited. The Royal Society of London, with its Arctic Committee, was closely involved with the Admiralty in recommending scientific programs and in nominating observers to the expeditions. Naval officers too were much concerned with science; some, including Parry and James Ross, were elected fellows of the Royal Society of London (F.R.S.). From John Ross through Parry to Franklin, scientific arctic voyages were strongly promoted. Geomagnetism, natural history, and meteorology were particularly prominent. During the searches for Franklin, the life sciences, geology, and meteorology continued to benefit, while geophysical researches were relatively neglected. After the Franklin disaster, geographical and other scientific exploration languished until the example of other nations and domestic lobbying persuaded the British government to send Nares north in 1875-76. This was the last of the old-style scientific expeditions to the Canadian Arctic. Afterwards, co-operation in science (as in the International Polar Year) and concern for the Arctic as national territory became dominant factors in arctic exploration.
King Eider (Somateria spectabilis) nesting in association with Long-tailed Skua (Stercorarius longicaudus)
Arctic, v. 41, no. 2, June 1988, p. 138-142, ill., map
ASTIS record 28554
In High Arctic Northeast Greenland King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) were found nesting in association with solitarily breeding Long-tailed Skuas (Stercorarius longicaudus). The association is demonstrated using spatial statistics analyses and timing of clutch initiations. Long-tailed Skuas' nests were evenly spaced in the 6.1 sq km census area, whereas nine out of ten King Eider nests were located close to five different nests of Long-tailed Skua. It is suggested that the association may be a state of commensalism.
Snow depth and hardness were measured at caribou feeding sites and along migration trails during spring migration of the Porcupine Caribou Herd from NE Alaska to Yukon. Snow was deeper along migration trails than within adjacent feeding areas, while no distinction was evident with respect to snow hardness between feeding and trailing areas. Average snow depths and hardness indexes were at or below values identified by previous authors as critical upper limits to caribou activity.
This profile describes the life of Henry George Cook, sometime Anglican bishop of Mackenzie. Henry Cook began his ministry in 1935 in Fort Smith, N.W.T., carrying out clerical duties including teaching school and the study of the Slavey language, used by the Indian population in that area. In 1943 he moved to Toronto and in 1949 became superintendent over the Anglican mission schools in the provinces and the two territories. Bishop retired in 1974 at the age of 68. However, Bishop and Mrs. Cook were not finished with the North. Cook was invited by Commissioner Stuart Hodgson to assist in the setting up of what was to become the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre which was opened in 1979. "The later history of the church's life, together with the development of missions down the Mackenzie area, would not be complete witout an acknowledgment of the devotion, commitment and concerned oversight expressed through the life and ministry of Henry George Cook, bishop of Mackenzie."
The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) had been in the North for centuries and continued to play a dominant role in the period following World War I. Scotty Gall, an 18-year-old growing up just outside Aberdeen, Scotland, decided there must be a greater future for him than working in a local foundry. So he applied for an apprenticeship with the HBC and came to Canada in 1923. This was the beginning of Gall's career in the North, which lasted until his retirement in 1966. ... Navigating the Northwest Passage in 1937 was a feat still unknown to most Canadians. The more publicized trip of the St. Roch, the RCMP ship, in 1942, is generally regarded as the first Canadian transit through the Passage. However, Scotty Gall piloted the HBC ship Aklavik through the Passage in the course of dropping supplies to HBC posts in 1937. He admits his trip was not publicized because individuals with the Bay at the time did not see that it was in their interest to publicize anything in the North. The trip of the Aklavik required a great deal of preparation at its home port of Cambridge Bay. The crew had to prepared, for example, to spend the winter away from home if caught in the ice. The big drop of trading goods on this trip in late 1937 was to be at Gjoa Haven on King William Island, and then the target was to transit the Northwest Passage - Bellot Strait, on this occasion - by 1 September, before freeze-up. ... The Aklavik was 60 feet (20 metres) in length and drew 6 feet (2 metres) of water. It was powered by a 35 hp Fairbanks-Morse engine. While it was not a particularly good freighter, carrying only 40-50 tons of cargo, it was considered an excellent vessel for the Arctic. A few years after the 1937 trip, the Aklavik caught fire and sank off Cambridge Bay. The voyage itself should be considered in context. It occurred before ships were equipped with radar. At the time, navigation was done by what Gall calls "instinct." ... Over the years his accomplishments have been a part of the history of the North. One of these accomplishments, his trip through the Northwest Passage in 1937, may be one of the best kept secrets in Canada. ...
Valter Schytt, Sweden's leading glaciologist and polar scientist, died 30 March 1985 in the Tarfala valley, Kebnekaise, Swedish Lapland. ... Always an internationalist, Schytt became the first non-British president of the International Glaciological Society (1969-72), he was long-time council member and then president (1977-79) of the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography, he was president of the Swedish Travellers' Club (1976-85), and he was a council member of Comite Arctique International (1979-85). Elected to membership in the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1974, he maintained his active interest in polar research and at the same time continued as director of the station at Tarfala. His standing in the Swedish scientific community was recognized in 1976 by his appointment as Lord Chamberlain in Waiting to the Court of King Carl XVI Gustav, a post that he enjoyed and handled with aplomb. The culmination of Valter Schytt's work in the field of polar research came in 1980, when the Swedish icebreaker Ymer made a voyage to commemorate Nordenskiold's attainment of the Northeast Passage (and the circumnavigation of Asia) in Vega between 1878 and 1880. Schytt was responsible for much of the organization and, as scientific leader, he was on board for both legs of the expedition, which ranged around Svalbard, to Greenland in the west, to the waters north of Franz Josef Land in the east, and to latitude 82 30 N. Schytt would have been pleased with the final report of this multifaceted expedition, issued in 1987 by the Swedish Academy of Sciences under the editorship of Gunnar Hoppe. For his outstanding work on the Ymer-80 Expedition Valter Schytt was awarded the Vega Medal, the highest award of the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography, in 1981. Another result of Schytt's efforts to stimulate polar research was the creation of a Committee for Polar Research within the Secretariat (a special government entity). Sweden acceded to the Antarctic Treaty in 1984, and during several recent austral summers Swedish glaciologists, physical geographers, and Quaternary geologists have again worked in the Antarctic. This is Valter Schytt's legacy.
Nadlok, or "crossing-place-of-deer" in Bathurst Inuit dialect, is an island camp and herd interception site found in 1982 by Douglas Stern 100 km south of Bathurst Inlet, Northwest Territories. In the "Little Ice Age" (1450-1700 A.D.), a few families of coastal Copper Inuit appear to have abandoned a declining seal resource on the coast for predictable and available inland caribou hunting at Nadlok. A simple tent camp, as seen in the architecturally sterile bottom level dating 1400 A.D., evolved into 15 sturdy stone and antler dwellings occupied in winter. ... Scattered between the floors were late prehistoric Copper Inuit tools, art and trade goods. Men's and women's tools include an ornately engraved antler knife handle, ulus, harpoons, arrows, copper fishhooks with bone lures, needle cases, whittling knives, engraved pendants, fire-starting kits and awls. There were some 40 000 bones, mostly the remains of caribou, but also of birds, fish and muskox. ...
Herbert W. Love, a former executive director of the Arctic Institute of North America, died in Green Valley, Arizona, on 14 March 1988. ... As its executive director, General Love served the Institute, and served it well, from the time he took over in January 1968 until he left it under somewhat turbulent circumstances in May 1975. His major regret in the change of direction of the Institute was that an independent and joint Canadian-United States organization was no longer possible. General Love had a long and distinguished military career both overseas and in Canada.
From 1951 until 1954, Mercer studied at McGill University. His Ph.D. thesis, ... was based on field work carried out in the vicinity of the Grinnell and Terra Nivea ice caps on southern Baffin Island. ... Mercer was highly motivated by field work and literally thrived on it. Typically, and often to the chagrin of at least one of his contemporaries, Mercer did not unnecessarily burden himself (or others) with loads of data. Many of his papers seemed to be largely based on his unusual synthesizing and perceptive powers, supported, where necessary, by a few, but key, radioisotope dates. Mercer was not a compulsive lecturer - in fact, he shunned such "duties" - but for those of us at the institute as graduate students (of which G.H. was one) Mercer was frequently a source of both private inspiration and considerable amusement. An important paper in 1968 set in motion his and others' ideas on the dynamics of "marine ice sheets" (Mercer, 1968). ... His realistic thinking through the ice sheet dynamics scenarios and the associated sea level changes inspired the numerical modellers to dedicate their paper to him. ... The results of his field work are of great importance in synthesizing the spatial variations of global climate change, which was one of the underlying themes of Mercer's research. ... His stimulating presence will be widely missed, especially by those at the Byrd Polar Research Center in Columbus, Ohio.
... One of Karasik's major achievements was his many years' study of the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. This study enabled him to develop and substantiate the technique of geohistorical analysis, which, due to his efforts, became technologically accessible to a wide circle of investigators. ... Karasik was a highly gifted person of wide erudition and a great capacity for work. In 1967 he received his degree of Candidate of Technical Sciences and in 1975 that of Doctor of Geologico-Mineralogical Sciences. The two dissertations were based on the results of aeromagnetic surveys carried out under his leadership and active personal participation. Karasik took part in 15 arctic and 2 Antarctic expeditions. His publications covering various problems in geophysics and magnetometry include some 200 papers. He attended many congresses, conferences and committee meetings. His reports at scientific meetings were distinguished by their remarkable completeness, logic and elegance of style and attracted widespread attention. ... Karasik was at the peak of his creative ability when his life stopped. His devotion to cause and his creative mind, enthusiasm and unfailing readiness to help secured the respect and affection of his collaborators. ...