Wildlife observability and responses and visitor attitudes were sampled after a mandatory visitor shuttle bus transportation system was in operation for 10 years in Denali National Park, Alaska. Visitor approval of the park transportation policy increased from 80% to 89% from 1972 to 1982-83. Vehicles per day increased 50% from 1973-74 to 1982-83. Moose sightings per trip declined 72%, grizzly bear sightings declined 32%, while Dall sheep and caribou sightings remained constant over the same period. Allowing unlimited private vehicle access during the falls of 1982 and 1983 had little influence upon the numbers of wildlife seen. However, more wildlife were put to flight, flight distances increased, more grizzlies were thwarted from crossing the road, and visitors stopped near and approached wildlife afoot more often. Wildlife responses were significantly influenced by pre-stimulus wildlife behavior for all four species, the type of human behavior for moose and grizzlies, sex/age class for moose and caribou, group size for caribou, number of vehicles present for grizzlies, and the presence or absence of vegetation screening for moose and grizzlies (p<0.05). Moose were alert four times as often (32±21%) when close to the park road than when >1 km away (4.8±5.1%), and when close to the road they were alerted to 37±21% of all road stimuli, while caribou were alerted to only 21±11% (p<0.03) of road stimuli.
The small mammal communities of boreal forest in the SW Yukon are diverse and little is known about the underlying reasons for this species richness. Niche differentiation through staggered periods of activity is one way in which similar species may avoid potential interference competition. In this study we describe the activity pattern of three rodents (the deer mouse, the northern red-backed vole, and the singing vole) from the summer solstice to the autumnal equinox. Activity was measured on two white spruce plots by checking live-traps at 2 h intervals over a 24 h period. We did this at monthly intervals between June and September 1984. The deer mouse was strongly nocturnal throughout the summer, while the northern red-backed vole and the singing vole were active both day and night. During the nocturnal period of deer mouse activity, approximately 80% of the red-backed vole population was active, and we conclude that there is no evidence of temporal niche differentiation between these two species. Only deer mice showed a seasonal change in activity pattern. As the days became shorter, deer mice became active earlier, so that by September they were active 4 h earlier than they were in June.
Communities in the far north face severe difficulties in trying to function as autonomous units due to the north-south axis in which northern resources are sought by southern industrial powers. Ethnopolitics as practiced by the Sámi in Scandinavia represent a political solution to those difficulties. For ethnopolitical processes to work to the advantage of the minority people, the communities must have a power base leading to local autonomy. Such autonomy is based typically on land and water rights. The entire ethnic minority is dependent on viable local communities leading to cultural pluralism, an effective defense against assimilation by the majority society. Cultural viability, firm land rights and institutionalized ethnopolitics provide the basis for strengthening local autonomies to such ends.
The indigenous caribou population of Coats Island, N.W.T., suffered major declines from winter mortality in the winters of 1974-75 (a 71% loss) and 1979-80. There was a minor die-off in the winter of 1983-84. Apparently in the major declines the entire calf cohorts (1974 and 1979) died. In the less drastic decline in 1983-84 males, calves and adults, died at greater rates than females. The over-winter losses occurred at different densities and hence were density independent, resulting from snow accumulation and a sparse food supply. Reproductive success was low following severe winters, with 3.7% calves in June 1975 and 8.5% in June 1980. In other years, despite poor winter nutrition, the herd was productive: fall calf: cow ratios of 76:100 in 1981, 57:100 in 1982 and 102:100 in 1983. Apparently cows that survived winter starvation were able to recover despite a short growing season, in the absence of insect and predation influences, and to conceive the following autumn. High summer calf survival in the absence of predation, plus the high proportion of cows in the herd (83%), provided the means for rapid recovery in numbers (r=0.21) when winter conditions ameliorated sufficiently that starvation did not occur.
Scholars have described in detail the Schism (Raskol) of the Russian Orthodox Church (c. 1652-66) brought on by the Nikonnian reforms. As a result of this schism, large segments of the population (raskol'niki, or people of Raskol) have evolved, members of which came to be known as Old Believers because of their insistence on worshipping according to pre-reform rituals. Persecution by the Russian tsarist government forced Old Believers into remote and undeveloped areas, where they quietly continued to practice the old rituals, periodically moving when threats of persecution caught up with them again. Several of these groups have recently immigrated to the United States, settling in the rural areas of Oregon and Alaska. Their obedience to the old 17th-century ways places them in conspicuous contrast to other residents of their new location. At the same time, elders complain that contact with modern American values is threatening the loyalty and discipline of their members, especially the younger ones. However, despite tendencies toward acculturation in some aspects of their existence, their continued observance of the old ways in many religious and cultural aspects, including appearance, religious conduct, and language, both Russian and Church Slavonic, is found to a large degree. This paper describes their present-day way of life and the continuing efforts to preserve and protect their cultural values.
Benthonic foraminiferal assemblages in 63 grab samples collected in Baffin Island fiord basin environments (67-800 m) are dominated by arenaceous species such as Textularia earlandi and Spiroplectammina biformis. These forms reflect the influence of cold (<=0.0 degrees C) arctic water conditions. Incursions of comparatively warm and saline Atlantic bottom water is marked in the deepest part of some fiord basins by the distribution of several calcareous species such as Melonis zaandamae and Nonionella atlantica. The highest living calcareous species population densities are associated primarily with fiord sills and with inner shelf environments near the mouths of fiords. Conversely, the patchy distribution and low percentages of many calcareous species found in basin sediments suggest passive transport of perhaps both living specimens and empty tests from shallow nearshore (endemic) environments or their occupation of deep basin transitional environments that mark the change from Atlantic to arctic water masses.
Assessing the assessors : An examination of the impact of the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process on federal decision making
Arctic, v. 39, no. 3, Sept. 1986, p. 240-246
ASTIS record 19059
Since its inception in 1974, the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP) has provided a unique forum for decision-making processes among developer-proponents and between government departments at federal, provincial and territorial levels. In the past decade, a wealth of panel reports and recommendations has been assembled in a series of publications, many of which focus on development proposals on federal lands in the Canadian north. Here, the degree to which EARP recommendations have influenced the federal decision-making process is assessed generally. It is concluded that most EARP panel reports have exerted a profound effect on proponent developers, proponent-departments or associated federal, provincial or territorial agencies. In most cases, the review process has worked to enhance the coordination and delivery of a complex matrix of government services. One of the major benefits of the EARP is that it provides an arena for the numerous government departments to openly consult, communicate and begin to negotiate future roles, responsibilities and involvement in projects. The force of scrutiny, in a forum open to members of the general public, appears to have facilitated the resolution of jurisdictional responsibilities and roles in project developments among regulatory bodies. Importantly, EARP panel consultations allow government agencies and interest groups to openly assess proposals without concern over conflicts of interest. Critics have pointed out several significant drawbacks and jurisdictional overlaps of the EARP process. Given the existing complexity of the Canadian regulatory system, these concerns may be less significant than the advantages provided by the process for inter-and intra-governmental coordination and public consultations. In many cases, it is considered that the existence of the EARP has forced government departments to factor environmental and/or socio-economic concerns into their decision-making processes. Although difficult to quantify, this may be one of the primary influences of the EARP on Canadian governmental decision making in both the public and private sectors.
White spruce trees occur in the Arrigetch Creek valley and its tributaries at great distances above and beyond current treeline, which is at 760 m elevation. The highest tree found is at 1465 m elevation on a south-facing limestone slope. Trees also occur up to 5.0 km beyond treeline on granitic parent rock. These trees appear to occur at the highest elevation north of the Arctic Circle in North America and include some of the highest trees in Alaska.
Dating exposed rock surfaces in the Arctic by lichenometry : The problem of thallus circularity and its effect on measurement errors
Arctic, v. 39, no. 3, Sept. 1986, p. 253-259, ill.
ASTIS record 19065
Lichenometry represents an extremely useful dating technique in the Arctic. It is most appropriate for exposed rock surfaces, which are abundant in most arctic environments, and on occasion it represents the only suitable technique for estimating the age of a surface. As a result, lichenometry is being used in an increasing number of arctic studies. Despite this, controversy still surrounds the manner in which individual thalli are measured. The majority of workers measure either the longest axis or the diameter of the largest inscribed circle. The measurement error involved in the latter is significantly greater than that for longest axis measurements. The proportion of circular thalli on a surface decreases through time, and studies that use circular thalli only or inscribed circle diameters will underestimate the maximum growth rate of lichens on older surfaces.
The pond smelt (Hypomesus olidus) has a limited North American distribution, being restricted to the west coast of Alaska and the drainage of the lower Mackenzie River, N.W.T. This study examined an isolated population in a small tundra lake on the Yukon coastal plain. Otolith interpretation revealed that most adult fish sampled in Lake 100 were age 4+ and 5+ years, but a few individuals lived to age 8+ and 9+. Full maturity was not reached until age 5+ and repeat spawning was common. The sex ratio was skewed in favour of females. Growth was found to be slower in the Yukon population than in Alaskan and Japanese lakes. Some stunting was evident in Lake 100 pond smelt, but otherwise their meristic and morphometric characteristics corresponded with those from elsewhere. The pond smelt were primarily planktivorous in Lake 100 and there appeared to be no significant predation on them, but in the Mackenzie delta and elsewhere they are utilized as a forage species.
Forty-seven days of hourly sea level and atmospheric pressure data collected in 1848 at Port Leopold, N.W.T., are analyzed using modern time series computation techniques. Tidal analysis reveals a mixed tide but mainly semi-diurnal. A detailed analysis of the tidal data reveals that the time-keeping of the record was as good as today's standard. A high correlation between hourly sea level and atmospheric pressure data demonstrates the inverse barometric effect.
Strandlines, diagnostic features of glacier-dammed lakes, may not always represent highwater markers. They can apparently be formed during jökulhlaups. An example of the formation of a strandline during the 1984 draining of Strandline Lake is given.
James Green Stewart, a classic example of the often-neglected second rank of the northern exploratory corps, made a noteworthy contribution to the opening of the far northwest. Although his part in northern exploration has been obscured by the more dynamic and public careers of his superior officers, most notably Robert Campbell, Stewart played a vital role in the Hudson's Bay Company's efforts to expand into the Yukon River valley. ... Campbell had been active in the Liard and Pelly River regions for almost a decade and had just opened Fort Selkirk at the junction of the Pelly and Lewes (Yukon) rivers when Stewart joined him in 1848. As Campbell's assistant, Stewart faced the onerous task of helping to make this isolated fur post a viable enterprise. The challenge proved difficult and, ultimately, unsuccessful. Fort Selkirk was poorly positioned, for it thrust the Company's trade into the midst of trading networks maintained by the coastal Tlingit Indians, who, ironically, exchanged their furs at coastal points with other Hudson's Bay Company traders. The post suffered as well from its isolated position. Supplies had to be brought in along the Liard River, a violent and dangerous stream that claimed the lives of many Company tripmen. ... in 1852, Campbell and Stewart were forced to abandon the post they had fought so hard to sustain, when Chilcat (Tlingit) Indians, long-time rivals of the Hudson's Bay Company traders at Fort Selkirk, attacked it. ... for both Stewart and Campbell, the debacle at Fort Selkirk marked the end of their Yukon careers. Stewart, however, continued to serve in the North. He was stationed for short periods at Fort McPherson, Fort Carleton, and Fort Resolution. In 1855, Stewart was assigned to assist James Anderson's Back River expedition, sent to confirm reported sightings of the lost crew of John Franklin. The journey was wracked by discord between the two principal men. Anderson repeatedly overruled Stewart, challenging his selection of guides and route. Bad luck and poor planning plagued the trip throughout. Anderson claimed that Stewart had used poor judgement in securing bark for the canoes, which proved incapable of handling the rough waters of the Back River and the heavy ice conditions along the coast. The troubles continued at the end of the expedition, when Stewart was accused of lacking initiative and chastised for not following orders. ... The experience severely damaged Stewart's reputation, which clearly had peaked during his Yukon career. Stewart remained with the Company, rising to the rank of Chief Factor in 1869. He served at Cumberland House, Oxford House, and Norway House before being dropped from the Hudson's Bay Company's list of officers in the deed poll of 1871. James Green Stewart died 10 years later, at the age of 55.
... Joseph Elzéar Bernier belonged to the fading era of wooden ships and iron men. His father and grandfather were sea captains and shipbuilders. He attended school in L'Islet until he was 14 and then went to sea. Three years later he became master of his vessel. After a hundred voyages to many ports he came ashore to accept the unlikely position of governor of the Quebec jail. This fitted into Bernier's scheme, for it gave him time to read and to study. Since 1872 he had been fascinated by arctic exploration, so now he absorbed all of the published accounts of British, American, Danish, and Norwegian expeditions. In 1898 he gave a lecture before the Quebec Geographical Society expounding on both how he might reach the North Pole by ship and dog-team and how he might sail through the Northwest Passage. This created a stir. He resigned from the jail and started campaigning. ... What appeared to be a key to the realization of his dreams in 1904 was the availability of a stoutly built 650-ton sailing ship with an auxiliary steam engine. This was the Gauss, named for a German astronomer and magnetician, built in Kiel in 1901 for a two-year Antarctic expedition that had been successfully completed. Bernier purchased her for the Canadian government at a bargain price of $75,000 and sailed her to Quebec, where she was renamed Arctic. But, alas, the government had surprising and disappointing plans for Bernier. Instead of heading his own expedition to the North Pole, he was to serve only as master of the Arctic for a year-long patrol of the Northwest Mounted Police into Hudson Bay to control foreign traders and whalers. However, this interlude gave Bernier experience in arctic travel and living, standing him in good stead for the future. His ship performed well, so he was now ready for whatever northern responsibilities he could assume. ... On his 1908-1909 expedition Bernier took the Arctic through half the length of M'Clure Strait. It was invitingly open and he might have realized his dream of sailing through the Northwest Passage, which Roald Amundsen had already done with a much smaller vessel by a more southerly route in 1903-1906, but Bernier lacked authorization to proceed and reluctantly turned back. On his next voyage he had the authorization, but this time M'Clure Strait was ice-choked. ... In 1912, ... he had left the service of the government to engage in a private gold-hunting and fur-trading venture around Pond Inlet, Baffin Island, ... In 1922 the Arctic was refurbished for the first of a series of annual government expeditions to the Eastern Arctic Archipelago. Bernier, who had found no Baffin gold and was now 70 years old, was glad to be placed in charge of his old ship again. The tasks of the expeditions were to maintain sovereignty among the arctic islands (showing the flag, as it were), establish new posts of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and reprovision and rotate the men at existing ones, see to the health and welfare of the resident Inuit, and conduct scientific investigations. ... In 1927 Bernier commanded two tugs towing a dredge and steel scow from Halifax to the Hudson Bay port of Churchill. That same year he was granted a government pension of $2,400 annually, plus a medal, rewarding him for what he had done to strengthen Canada's title to arctic islands whose potential value was still beyond anyone's dreams - except perhaps his own. On December 26, 1934, at the age of 82, Joseph Elzéar Bernier died. Despite having been thwarted in his early ambition of going to the North Pole or through the Northwest Passage, he had earned a niche in the history of Canadian arctic exploration.
A.P. Low's written reports of 23 seasons in northern Canada constitute one of the most significant substantiated achievements in Canadian exploration. ... Albert Peter Low was born in Montreal in 1861 into a loyalist family that had left the United States in 1783. Immediately after graduating in applied science from McGill University in 1882, Low began his association with the Geological Survey of Canada. The last two decades of the 19th century were an exciting and heady time for the G.S.C. Although Canada's political boundaries were known, detailed knowledge of the actual topography, geological and forest resources, flora and fauna was, in many areas, nonexistent. It fell to Selwyn, Dawson, McConnell, McGinnis, Tyrrell, Bell, Low, and others of the Geological Survey to fill in much of the map of Canada. On his first trip into the Quebec-Labrador region in 1884-1885, at the age of 24, Low became a central figure in "the Lake Mistassini incident." The expedition, a joint effort of the G.S.C., the Quebec government, and the Quebec Geographic Society, was led by John Bignell, a veteran surveyor aged 67. Travelling northward from St. Lawrence, the party eventually set up a winter base at the Hudson's Bay Company post on Lake Mistassini after several days of extremely cold travel on minimal rations. Disagreement with Bignell had apparently been festering for some time, and Low took action toward a resolution. He left Mistassini on February 2, travelling by snowshoe and dog team to Quebec City and thence by train westward, arriving in Ottawa on March 2. Here he was given command of the expedition, and by April 29 he was back at Mistassini - a phenomenal feat illustrating the initiative and physical strength that was to sustain Low through many more seasons on the trail. In spring, Low finished the work on Lake Mistassini, determining it to be about 160 km long and 24 km wide, not the immense interior sea that Indian tales had suggested. The party left the region via the Rupert River in the fall of 1885. The next few seasons Low continued work in the Hudson Bay, then known as Eastmain. ... The travels of the succeeding four years were chronicled in Low's "Report on Exploration in the Labrador Peninsula along the Eastmain, Koksoak, Hamilton, Manicuagan and portions of other Rivers in 1892-93-94-95." ... the 1893-1894 trip, during which the party wintered over at Northwest River, Low covered over 8700 km - 4730 by canoe, 1600 by ship, 800 by dog team, and 1600 on foot. Not only were the technical aspects of the main travel routes detailed, but his report included extensive historical, geological, botanical, meteorological, entomological, ornithological and ethnographic information that to this day constitute a standard reference on the region. ... Low was the first to identify the extensive iron deposits around Schefferville and Labrador City. He was also the first man to realize that the centre of the Labrador Plateau had been the pivot for a continental ice sheet and was, in fact, part of the Pre-Cambrian Shield. ... After a brief period in private business, Low assumed command of the Neptune for its 1903-1904 voyage to the eastern Arctic, which resulted in Canada officially claiming the Arctic Archipelago. In 1906, at the age of 45, Low retired from active field work to become the director of the Geological Survey. Although his tenure was only 18 months, he oversaw the transfer of the G.S.C. from the Interior Department to the new Mines Department. In 1907 Low became the first deputy Minister of the Department of Mines, but within a few months he was stricken by what is thought to have been a cerebral hemorrhage and, soon after that, by spinal meningitis. ... Amazingly, the strength and endurance of his youth did not totally fail Low, for he lived out a long, apparently quiet, retirement in Ottawa, ultimately dying in virtual obscurity in 1942 at the age of 81.