We studied the avifauna of Buldir Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, between 1972 and 1984. During the study 126 forms of 125 species were recorded, including first North American records for 6 species and first Aleutian records for 4 others. Due to the absence of mammalian predators and rich food resources nearby, 32 species, 21 of them seabirds, bred at Buldir. Breeding populations totaled approximately 1.8 million pairs of birds, primarily storm-petrels (Oceanodroma spp.) and auklets (Aethia spp.). Buldir's suite of breeding alcids - 12 species - may be the most diverse of any seabird colony in the world. Our data on migrants suggest that Buldir is near the eastern edge of the Japan-Kuril Islands-Kamchatka flyway. All migrant and breeding species recorded are discussed in an annotated list.
In the past few decades, little information on the wolf (Canis lupus) in Greenland has been published. The decline of the species and its extirpation in the late 1930s from East Greenland is well documented. Since then, there has been a tendency for wolves sighted in the North and East Greenland National Park to be classified as temporary visitors wandering afar from adjacent Canada, with no prospect of survival in Greenland for anything but a short period. In view of the virtual absence of human population in this vast region, that assumption may not be accurate. There is now abundant evidence to indicate that a renewed immigration and dispersal of wolves has been taking place during the last years, with a migration route from Ellesmere Island eastward across North Greenland into Peary Land, and then southward into the fjord region of central East Greenland. The wolf is reoccupying its former range and by the winter of 1983 wolves had reached the Scoresby Sund region - the species' southernmost territory of the 1930s. Examination of the published records and all available unpublished data provides a historical picture of the status of the wolf in Greenland, from which some conclusions can be made regarding populations, pack size, migration routes, feeding habits and travelling distances.
Exceptionally high correlations (r=0.90-0.97) between number of vascular species and various indices of summer warmth at 38 localities in the Canadian Arctic support Young's contention that summer thermal regime is the most important ecological factor controlling the broad zonation of arctic flora. Highest correlations (r=0.97) are with July mean temperature and mean number of degree-days above 0 degrees C in July. Regression equations relating July mean temperature and number of species indicate a diversity gradient of about 25 species per degree. These equations provide estimates of species numbers or July temperatures in areas with poor climate or botanical data and may also be used to identify anomalous conditions.
During late winter 1982 and 1983, the distribution and movements of moose adjacent to the Trans-Alaska near Big Delta, Alaska, were examined. Within a 15 km wide corridor centered on the pipeline, moose distribution was independent of the distance from the pipeline. Of 175 moose trails examined, most (94%) crossed the pipeline successfully upon entering the right-of-way regardless of pipe mode or pipe height above ground. Pipe heights above 1.5 m were adequate for moose passage, but greater heights up to 2.7 m were preferred. Sections of pipe that were buried or that were specially elevated to facilitate moose passage did not receive preferential use. Moose moved in a meandering fashion whether they were crossing the pipeline or moving within habitats in distant areas. The results of this study supported the hypothesis that the distribution and local movements of moose were not significantly affected by the pipeline.
Two hundred and twelve wolves (Canis lupus labradorius) shot by hunters in northern Quebec and Labrador during the winters of 1976-77 through 1983-84 were examined for various population parameters. An estimated annual adult survival rate of 55% and a recruitment rate of 49% suggest a population of moderate exploitation. The sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1. Fifty-five percent of yearling females were pregnant or in breeding condition. The average litter size for all females was 6.8. Internal fat deposits were greatest in young males and older females. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) was the most common food item found in stomachs. A sample of caribou killed by wolves in the winter showed a selection for older-aged caribou with fat deposits slightly below that of the general population.
Two peat sections containing insect fossil remains from the eastern coastal plain of the Alaskan North Slope were analyzed in comparison with pollen studies. The sections span a period from 10,400 B.P. to 1,320 B.P., providing information on the post-glacial distributions of some of the beetles species that were a part of the Beringian refugium fauna. The fossil insect evidence suggests climatic conditions similar to modern parameters, especially in the early Holocene, in general agreement with paleobotanical and vertebrate fossil interpretations for the coastal plain and elsewhere in eastern Beringia.
Feeding, respiration and excretion of the copepod Calanus hyperboreus from Baffin Bay, including waters contaminated by oil seeps
Arctic, v. 39, no. 2, June 1986, p. 158-163, ill., map
ASTIS record 18803
Metabolic processes in eastern arctic copepods Calanus hyperboreus were analyzed during the post-bloom period (August-September). Mixed adult and subadult copepods were collected from 12 stations in Baffin Bay (Davis Strait to Lancaster Sound) by trawling from 0-300 m. Measurements were made of clearance rate, O2-consumption and NH3 excretion. The cruise track included 6 stations in oil-seep contaminated waters of Scott Inlet and Buchan Gulf. Physiological parameters for populations of C. hyperboreus from the latter stations were compared with those from non-seep stations. Mean O2 consumption rates (0.309 - 0.907 µl O2 / mg dry wt / h) for all stations were similar to those described for Antarctic calanoid species but were higher than reported for more northern arctic waters. Mean ammonia excretion rates (0.023 - 0.071 µg N / mg dry wt / h) were somewhat lower than reported for comparable Antarctic species and were similar to values from other eastern arctic studies. O:N ratios for 11 of the 12 stations occupied ranged between 8.4 and 22.1, indicative of protein-based metabolism. The single exception was a High Arctic station with O:N ratio 43.6. Clearance rates were low to nonexistant for all stations. Most of the non-feeding values came from the Scott Inlet-Buchan Gulf region of western Baffin Bay. At those stations in this region a strong negative correlation (P<.01) exists between clearance rate and hydrocarbon contamination. This suggests that in the oil-seep region of Baffin Bay feeding may be suppressed in Calanus hyperboreus by low concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons derived from sub-sea seepage.
To Great Slave and Great Bear : P.G. Downes's journal of travels north from Ile à la Crosse in 1938 [Part V]
Arctic, v. 39, no. 2, June 1986, p. 164-171, ill.
ASTIS record 18807
This is the final installment of the narrative of P.G. Downes's trip by canoe, boat, and plane from Ile à la Crosse to Great Bear and Great Slave lakes in 1938, in which he presents a detailed account of his feelings, thoughts, and experiences, as well as his observations on individual men and women, northern lore, and geographic characteristics of the region.
Open woodland is a major sub-type of the circum global boreal forest zone. In Canada it dominates the basins of a number of large hydroelectric schemes in which snowmelt is a critical phase of the hydrologic cycle. The forest vegetation strongly influences the radiant energy flux to the snow and is therefore important in the production of snowmelt runoff and its prediction. The radiation budget of a subarctic open woodland canopy in northern Quebec is computed from measurements of net allwave, solar and longwave radiation components over the snowpack at treeless and woodland sites. The canopy gains solar radiation both directly and from solar radiation reflected off the snowpack, the latter enhanced by the larger spacing between tree crowns. Canopy heating from absorbed solar radiation leads to a considerable longwave flux being emitted by the tree crowns. Overall, the radiant energy exchange in the open woodland behaves differently than for a closed crown forest. This is believed to be a function of a variety of canopy characteristics, not solely of tree crown density.
Using short-decay instrumental neutron activation analysis, concentrations of the trace elements Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, I, Mg, Mn, Na, and V were determined in rainfall sampled from Frobisher Bay, N.W.T., during three weeks in the summer of 1984. Detectable concentrations were reported for all ten elements. Enrichment factors revealed that concentrations generally represent either crustal or oceanic natural background levels.
One hundred and thirty-nine wolf (Canis lupus) skulls and mandibles were collected from hunters and trappers of northern Quebec and Labrador during the winters of 1980-81 through 1983-84. The maximum width of the dentine-cementum wall in wolf canine teeth was used to separate pups killed late in their first year from yearlings killed early in their second winter of life. Both age classes may have a closed foramen at the apex of the root and a clear deposit of cementum with no opaque annulus.
... Eenoolooapik was born around 1820 at Qimisuk, on the west coast of Cumberland Sound. While still young, he travelled with his family on an unusual voyage by umiak, skirting the coastline of Cumberland Sound until they reached Cape Enderby on Davis Strait. The boy closely observed the outline of the coast as they rowed slowly past. At Cape Enderby, they met a group of whalers and decided to continue their voyage to Cape Searle, a location frequented by the whalers, where they settled. Contact with these strangers fired Eenoolooapik's curiosity about their land, and a desire grew in him to visit their homeland. ... At about this same time, unpredictable catches in Davis Strait and worsening ice conditions had the fishery concerned. At least one widely publicized article appeared in Britain suggesting that only diversification into trade and the establishment of permanent whaling stations could save the fishery. In 1833, William Penny, mate on the Traveller, was sent to investigate Inuit reports of a large bay full of whales to the south of Exeter Bay. Penny's trip failed, but he tried again in 1839 when he discovered that Eenoolooapik was a native of Tenudiackbeek and could map its entire coastline. Here, the desires of both Penny and Eenoolooapik merged. Penny wanted to take the Inuk to Britain because he felt Eenoolooapik's information could convince the Navy to sponsor an expedition to Tenudiackbeek, and perhaps keep the fishery alive. ... Despite an excellent map Eenoolooapik prepared of Tenudiackbeek, the Navy was unwilling to back an expedition. Without government support, Penny was forced to catch whales first, and only then, if time permitted, to explore. As well, Penny's plans to educate Eenoolooapik in boat building and other skills came to naught because of the Inuk's poor health. Although Eenoolooapik had made many friends in Aberdeen, he eventually grew homesick, sailing for the Arctic on April 1, 1840. ... Back home, he resumed a normal life and does not appear to have tried to impress people unduly with his tales or possessions. He married Amitak shortly after leaving Penny, and by 1844, when Penny once again returned to Cumberland Sound, Eenoolooapik had a son called Angalook. Three years later, in the summer of 1847, Eenoolooapik died of consumption, and after his death his name - according to custom - was given to a newborn nephew. ... Every year after Eenoolooapik's return, whalers visited Cumberland Sound. In 1851-1852 Sidney Buddington led the first intentional wintering by a whaling crew, and two years later Penny conducted the first wintering with a ship.
In April 1854 Dr. John Rae heard from Inuit at Pelly Bay an account of the last fateful days of Franklin's expedition, missing somewhere to the west for a number of years. ... When his report of his discovery reached England, Lady Jane Franklin mounted a private expedition ... to search for relics of the expedition on the site. Commander of the expedition was Captain Francis Leopold McClintock .... McClintock chose Lieutenant William Robert Hobson as his second-in-command. ... William joined the Navy in 1845 and was promoted to mate in 1852, in the interim serving aboard a number of ships on fairly routine duties. Early in 1853 he was appointed mate aboard Rattlesnake, which had been ordered to take supplies to Plover, waiting at Point Barrow, Alaska, in support of McClure's Investigator and Collinson's Enterprise. These latter ships had entered the Arctic via Bering Strait in 1850 to search for the Franklin expedition from the west. ... In February, Hobson, with two seamen and nine dogs, set off on a sledge journey northward across the Seward Peninsula to Chamisso Island. This had been set as the rendezvous for Frederick Beechey in Blossom and John Franklin during the latter's second land expedition in 1825-1827, and hence it was thought that Franklin might have headed here again. Hobson's task was to check for signs of Franklin at Chamisso Island. He returned to Rattlesnake on 27 March, having reached his goal and finding no sign of Franklin. ... On the basis of this arctic experience, McClintock chose Hobson as his second-in-command for his search expedition aboard Fox. Sailing from Aberdeen on 2 July 1857, Fox made her way north to Melville Bay, where she was caught in the pack ice and drifted for eight months before she could break free. The Fox found more secure winter quarters the next year at Port Kennedy, near the east end of Bellot Strait, and Hobson led several depot-laying trips to the west side of Boothia Peninsula. During a reconnaissance trip in February 1859, McClintock encountered Inuit near Cape Victoria who possessed various relics from the missing Erebus and Terror, and reported that one of them had been crushed west of King William Island. On the basis of this information McClintock and Hobson set off, each leading a party that included one man-hauled sledge and one dog sledge. ... Heading west across Ross Strait, Hobson and his men reached the coast of King William Island. Near Cape Felix they found a cairn and the remains of a camp; by the clothing and equipment scattered around, Hobson deduced it had been a hunting or observatory camp occupied for quite some time by a party from Erebus and Terror. Three days later they found another cairn, originally built by James Ross, and inside it, in a cylinder, the only record that has ever been found describing, in frustratingly brief terms, the final outcome of the Franklin expedition, including the information that Franklin had died in 1847 and ending with the horrifying announcement that the survivors were about to start to walk south to the nearest fur trade post. ... Hobson and his men continued south on 7 May. For nearly two weeks they struggled south along the barren west coast of King William Island despite almost constant blizzards. ... Hobson reached Simpson's cairn at Cape Herschel on the 19th. Next, he crossed Simpson Strait to the mainland and continued some distance farther east, finally turning back on the 21st. ... For his achievements on King William Island, made in the face of vile weather and despite a progressively incapacitating attack of scurvy, Hobson deserves better than the passing recognition that has been accorded to him.
Ebierbing, called "Joe" by the many whaling men and explorers who knew him, was a small and diffident man, but in the course of a hard life he consistently displayed remarkable strength, courage, and fortitude, as well as unswerving loyalty to those non-Inuit "kabloonas" who came to depend upon him. Foremost among those who benefited from Ebierbing's loyalty was the American explorer Charles Francis Hall. Hall first met Ebierbing and his wife Tookoolito, known as "Hannah," at the mouth of Frobisher Bay in the autumn of 1860. Some years earlier, Ebierbing and Tookoolito had been taken to England by a whaling captain. There they had learned some English and had converted to Christianity; .... For Hall, a neophyte explorer on his first venture into the Arctic, they were God sent. In the two years that followed they introduced him to the ways of the Inuit and taught him how to survive in the far North. When they were not on the road with the remorselessly energetic Hall, they were able to find peace and quiet at the home of whaling captain Sidney Buddington and his wife at Groton, Connecticut. They came to consider Groton their home, in fact, and when they returned with Hall from his second expedition, Ebierbing bought a house and land there. Hall's second expedition, like his first, was a futile search for supposed survivors of the Franklin expedition almost twenty years after it had disappeared. In five arduous years of roaming in the areas of Roe's Welcome Sound, Repulse Bay, Igloolik, and King William Island, he accomplished little but his own survival, and in that accomplishment Ebierbing and Tookoolito again were his mainstay. ... The Polaris expedition was a disaster. Hall died early on, possibly murdered by its chief scientist, and with his death the morale of the expedition collapsed. In the spring of 1873 the ship's captain, Sidney Buddington, headed the Polaris southward. Caught in ice during a storm, he ordered abandonment of the ship. Nineteen members of the expedition, including Ebierbing, Tookoolito, and their adopted child, found themselves marooned on a floe when the partly unloaded ship suddenly drifted away. According to George Tyson, the ranking officer in the marooned party, in the incredible six-month drift on the ice that followed, everyone depended on Ebierbing. "We survive through God's mercy and Joe's ability as a hunter," he wrote in his journal. At the official investigation of the expedition held after both Tyson's party and the men aboard the Polaris had been rescued, Ebierbing and Tookoolito were questioned. And during his interrogation Joe revealed the depth of his feeling about Hall, saying at the end: "Captain Hall good man. Very sorry when he die. No get north after that. Don't know nothing more." But he did go north again - twice more in fact. While Tookoolito remained in Groton grieving the loss of their adopted child, Ebierbing sailed with Captain Allen Young on the Pandora in 1876, a British expedition in search of the northwest passage. ... Ebierbing returned from the Pandora expedition to discover that his beloved Tookoolito had died. He remained in Groton briefly, then set out north again, this time with Lt. Frederick Schwatka in his search for records of the Franklin expedition. ... When Schwatka returned to the United States, Ebierbing stayed in the North. ... He died somewhere in the Arctic soon after the conclusion of the Schwatka expedition. ...
Although he was indisputably one of the world's greatest arctic mariners, Captain Robert A. Barlett's name and accomplishments are relatively obscure. As a sealer, arctic explorer, ice captain, and scientist, Bartlett made over 40 voyages in more than half a century at sea. He was decorated by the American Congress, the Explorers' Club, and geographical societies on two continents. He survived two shipwrecks and, thanks to his skill and perseverance, prevented a number of others, and he saved the lives of many shipmates. An eccentric who could play Chopin records as his ship was about to sink below the arctic ice, a man frequently inconsistent in accounts of his own voyages, a man blessed with incredible good luck when at sea, a known drinker who professed to be a teetotaler, Bartlett was, nevertheless, an exceptional leader of men. ... From the perspective of the late twentieth century, three periods loom pre-eminent in Bartlett's life. The first was the decade between 1898 and 1908 during which he accompanied Robert Peary on three separate attempts to reach the North Pole, the second was his captaincy of the Karluk on the Canadian Arctic Expedition in 1913 and 1914, and the third, his scientific voyages on the Morrissey from 1925 to 1945. Robert Peary encountered Bartlett in 1898 when Bartlett was the first mate on the Windward, the flagship of Peary's first unsuccessful journey to the North Pole. On Peary's subsequent expeditions Bartlett played critical roles. ... Yet Peary denied Bartlett a part in the final dash for the Pole and reserved this privilege for himself. ... The Karluk, under Bartlett's captaincy, was to be the main vessel in the Canadian Arctic Expedition of 1913. The expedition to the Western Arctic is famous for the anthropological and geographical work conducted by Vilhjalmur Stefansson and Diamond Jenness; however, the real hero of the venture has surely to be Robert Bartlett. When Stefansson left the Karluk in September 1913, ostensibly for a brief hunting foray on the mainland, she had been held fast in the ice for a number of weeks northeast of Point Barrow. But soon after Stefansson's departure, a gale carried the Karluk far to the west, still firmly fixed in the ice, and upon returning, Stefansson gave the ship and crew up for lost. Eventually, in January of the next year, the ship succumbed to ice pressure and sank about 400 km from the coast of Siberia. Under Barlett's leadership, the crew passed the next few months in an ice camp before the captain led the remnants of his party to Wrangel Island. From there, Bartlett and an Inuit companion travelled through incredible ice fields 320 km to Siberia, and a further 650 km to the Bering Strait and thence over to Alaska. By virtue of Bartlett's exertions, the survivors were picked up on Wrangel Island nearly a year after the Karluk had become entrapped in the ice. Bartlett's journey through incomparably tough ice conditions to save his crew is an event of epic dimensions, .... In 1925 Bartlett purchased the Morrissey, which he was to captain for the next 20 years. In these two decades Bartlett explored both northeast and northwest Greenland and various remote parts of the Canadian Arctic. He gathered botanical specimens and Inuit relics for many museums and societies and brought back numerous live arctic mammals for zoos. ... He was the complete explorer: navigator, adventurer, scientist, and leader of men. It does not seem just that men whose ships Bartlett captained, such as Peary and Stefansson, and whose expeditions Barlett personally saved have received so much more historical and popular attention than has Bartlett. ...
William John Duncan Dempster, veteran of 37 years' northern service with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, was born in Wales on October 21, 1876. Emigrating to Canada as a young man, he joined the N.W.M.P. in 1897 and the next year was posted to the Yukon, where he spent the rest of his career. Between 1898 and 1934, Dempster served in a dozen different Yukon communities, but his name received national attention in connection with the famous "Lost Patrol" of 1910-1911. ... The patrol of 1910-1911, of which Dempster was not a member, was commanded by Inspector F.J. Fitzgerald. ... When Fitzgerald did not arrive at Dawson as expected, Dempster, then a corporal, was sent out with two other members of the force and an Indian guide to find and rescue the patrol. ... On March 21 and 22 he discovered the bodies. After this disaster Dempster was ordered to make the route safe for future patrols, and thus he spent much of the winter of 1912-1913 establishing supply caches, building shelter cabins, and blazing the trail by making "lobsticks" - trees stripped bare except for their top branches and two branches sticking out lower down, to make them evident as trail markers - something that might have saved Fitzgerald's life had it been done earlier. It was ironic that Fitzgerald's name became better known in southern Canada than Dempster's, for it was Dempster who set the record for fastest patrol over the route - 19 days in connection with the Lost Patrol, and later, in 1920, 14 days over the same ground. But unlike Fitzgerald, Dempster avoided the publicity associated with disasters, for he did not take unnecessary chances in an attempt to set records, and he was not too proud to employ Indian guides or admit the fact on the rare occasions when he lost his way. ... Before he died on October 25, 1964, at the age of 88, he had the satisfaction of knowing that the new road from Dawson to Aklavik was to be named, in his honour, the Dempster Highway.