A forgotten nineteenth-century report provides evidence that there are two floras, not one, on the bottom of arctic sea ice, distinguishable in time, species composition, and, perhaps, nutrient condition. A halocline flora is also noted from recent studies that is analogous in habitat to the ice floras. Thus at least three separate autotrophic systems augment phytoplankton production in arctic seas. These augmenting systems seem to be a function of stability provided by sea ice.
In spring 1983 work on the ice shelves of northern Ellesmere Island was continued. A total of 55 m of 7.6 cm diameter ice core was obtained from 10 locations. The longest core of 31.79 m is composed of ice-firn and basement ice and can be divided into three distinct strata according to ice salinity. Oscillating strains in Ward Hunt Ice Shelf were measured with a wire strainmeter. It is suggested that the periodic calving of ice from Ward Hunt Ice Shelf might be related to the effects of high frequency oscillation of 35 s to 40 s. Ice conditions along 150 km of coastline continue to change. Continued monitoring of the ice is believed to be necessary in view of the offshore development in the Beaufort Sea.
This paper explores the potential of the economic-ecological method based on the exploitation of fish resources for Mesolithic site identification, as compared to the recently popular yet indecisive technological-typological method, to predict the existence of "Mesolithic-like" subsistence activities in Siberia during the Sartan-Holocene "transition" period. The article is an attempt to establish, or at least to propose, new criteria that can lead to a higher level of understanding of Mesolithic economies in subarctic and arctic regions. Also, decision-making processes that operate to achieve behavioral goals based on efficiency of human beings are suggested. The model, designed with respect to geographical regions identified as interbiotic zones, has the advantage of offering specific alternative hypotheses enabling the definition of both environmental properties and predicted human behavior.
Twenty-one harassment trials on 14 muskox herds were conducted in April and May 1982 on eastern Melville Island, N.W.T. Each trial consisted of a slow approach directly toward the herd on a snowmobile. The snowmobile, returned along its approach path as soon as 50% of the herd was alerted. Distance at which the first animal reacted (IRD) averaged 345.0 m(range 162-650 m) and the distance from the herd at closest approach (CAD) averaged 267.2 m(range 87-645 m). IRD was positively correlated with wind speed. No correlation between CAD and any of the measured variables was found. Maximum reaction level of the herd was positively correlated with herd size (rs = 0.488, P<0.05). No significant differences in IRD or CAD were found between or among classes of discrete variables such as topography and wind direction, but sample sizes were small. Adult female muskoxen reacted first more frequently than expected (P<0.02). Two herds were approached repeatedly (one six times and one three times) to assess habituation. Results were inconclusive. IRD for the herd that was approached three times decreased progressively. IRD for a herd approached six times was variable but shortest on the sixth approach and the reaction level of the herd also was low on the sixth approach..
The location, cause, frequency, size, rotation times, and seasonal timing of tundra fires in the Noatak River watershed of northwestern Alaska were determined from Bureau of Land Management fire records for 1956-83 and satellite (LANDSAT) 1:1 000 000 scale, black and white, band 7 imagery for 1972-81. Seventy-nine fires that burned 1018 km˛ were detected during the 28-year period from 1956 to 1983. Most of these occurred on the valley floor below 450 m in close proximity to the Noatak River or its tributaries. However, differences in mean fire size, frequency, and rotation times varied greatly among the six physiographic regions of the watershed. All fires occurred during one of two summertime periods in June and July. The implications of this seasonal timing and comparisons of the fire regimes in the Noatak with those in other areas of northern Alaska are discussed.
Zooplankton samples collected in winter-spring 1978-79 and in spring 1980 from under the sea ice at two sites near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, were analyzed for species composition and abundance. Sixty-eight categories, including 48 species and 20 other categories where identification was made to genus or other higher taxonomic rank, were identified. Calanoid copepods were dominant under the ice. As spring progressed, however, other organisms, including cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods, hydrozoans, amphipods, larvaceans, and larval stages of planktonic and benthic invertebrates, became more numerous. Some of these organisms, such as cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods, probably lived in the sea ice in early spring and were released into the water column as the ice melted. A correlation matrix identified three groups of zooplankton. Group one, consisting of Pseudocalanus spp., had large fluctuations in numbers throughtout the spring. Group two, consisting of benthic copepods, polychaetes, and the amphipod Halirages mixtus, became abundant when the ice began to melt. The third group, composed of all other species, had a more uniform abundance during early spring, but declined in numbers as the ice melted.
Late Weichselian glacial geology of the lower Borgarfjördur region, western Iceland : a preliminary report
Arctic, v. 38, no. 3, Sept. 1985, p. 210-213, ill., 1 map
ASTIS record 50267
Morphological and lithostratigraphical investigations have revealed two successive glacial advances of Late Weichselian age in the lower Borgarfjördur region, Western Iceland. Studies of the Melabakkar-Ásbakkar coastal cliffs have disclosed a complex of glaciomarine sediments and tills, accompanied by glaciofluvial deposits from ice marginal sources. A brief description is given for each of the major lithostratigraphical units, and a depositional model for the sequence is outlined. The first glacial advance occurred some time shortly after 12 000 radiocarbon years before present (BP), and the second one around 11 000 BP. By 10 000 BP the glaciers had retreated from the lowlands and the sea transgressed to 60 m above present sea level, where extensive marine terraces were formed.
Pollen, oxygen isotope content and seasonality in an ice core from the Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island
Arctic, v. 38, no. 3, Sept. 1985, p. 214-218, ill., map
ASTIS record 17466
The results of pollen analyses of 12 ice core samples, covering an eight-year period from 1972 through 1979 from the divide of the Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, are reported. The pollen spectra are dominated by long distance transported pollen, especially the conifers Picea and Pinus. Alnus pollen is generally rare. In contrast, pollen spectra from both modern polsters and fossil peat sections in the same area are both characterized by local pollen types. Pollen influx values range from 2 to 8 grains/cm˛/yr. Where the sampling intervals happened to coincide with established seasonal intervals (as interpreted from later oxygen isotope studies) the pollen spectra showed seasonal characteristics. This occurred in five out of the twelve samples. Comparison of these data is made with data from Devon Island Ice Cap. Such information may be useful in reconstructing paleoclimates.
In the summer of 1914 an extensive search was mounted by the Imperial Russian government for three expeditions, Sedov's, Brusilov's and Rusanov's, all of which had gone missing in the Arctic. As part of the search effort a naval pilot, Yan Iosifovich Nagurskiy, flying a French-built Maurice Farman floatplane, carried out an aerial search of a substantial portion of the west coast of Novaya Zemlya. In five major flights, totalling 10 hours 40 minutes in the air, Nagurskiy flew some 1060 km. This was the first successful attempt at operating an aircraft anywhere in the Arctic. During that same summer another naval pilot, D.N. Aleksandrov, attached to the Arctic Ocean Hydrographic Expedition aboard Taymyr and Vaygach, assembled his machine, an Henri Farman, at Bukhta Emma in Chukotka, but it suffered some irreparable damage during a test flight. During the expedition's subsequent wintering off the west coast of Poluostrov Taymyr Aleksandrov used the aircraft engine to power an aerosled, which was successfully used on a survey trip in June 1915. This was probably the world's first functional aerosled.
To Great Slave and Great Bear : P.G. Downes's journal of travels north from Ile ā la Crosse in 1938 [Part II]
Arctic, v. 38, no. 3, Sept. 1985, p. 231-243, ill.
ASTIS record 17461
The narrative of P.G. Downes's trip by canoe, boat, and plane from Ile ā la Crosse to Great Bear and Great Slave lakes in 1938, in which he presents a detailed account of his feelings, thoughts, and experiences, as well as his observations on individual men and women, northern lore, and geographic characteristics of the region. The journal will appear as five installations in Arctic.
A single pingo is located on an alluvial fan within the deeply incised Mala River valley of the Borden Peninsula, Baffin Island. Its formation appears to be related to the abandonment of the river channel due to the influx of alluvium from a tributary stream.
... In 1618 the Danish King Christian IV ordered Munk to ready a major expedition to embark for East India via Cape Horn. Tirelessly, Munk organized the ships, the men, the provisions, and the thousand details involved in such an undertaking. To his astonishment, however, the command was not to be his; it fell to a man of suitable nobility, Ove Giedde. ... The future was bleak, but Munk was not easily discouraged. He approached the king with a plan to launch another expedition to the far east, this one to proceed through the assumed northwest passage. ... Munk chose 61 men and two vessels, one the heavy mothership the Unicorn (Enhjoringen) and the other the light reconnaissance vessel the Lamprey (Lampren). ... They crossed the Atlantic and entered Frobisher Bay by mistake, and when they finally found their way into Hudson Strait, they accidentally sailed deep into Ungava Bay before they got back on the true course. By the time they reached Hudson Bay on September 4th, signs of scurvy were already present in the men. A savage storm forced Munk to make a spectacular entry with the Unicorn into a protected bay on the west coast at the site of present-day Churchill. The Lamprey soon followed, and the place was named Nova Dania. A wintering was clearly in store for the expedition, and little time was wasted in getting the ships to safe location. ... Aware of the dangers of scurvy, Munk encouraged his men to eat berries and roots as long as possible, and the ravages of the dread disease were postponed for a while. Nevertheless, on the 21st of November one man died of scurvy, and another followed soon after. ... On July 16 Munk began another, perhaps the greatest, epic journey. One can only imagine the next 67 days in ice-infested and storm-swept seas, across Hudson Bay, through the Strait, round the southern tip of Greenland, and forever eastward. The master mariner got the ship through it all, and on the 20th of September he spotted the distant mountains on the west coast of Norway. No hero's welcome awaited Jens Munk. One of his men was involved in a tavern brawl, and as captain responsible for his men, Munk was jailed; the revenge of the nobility was never far away. Apparently, the king was in no hurry to see Munk released, but he finally ordered his release after three months' imprisonment. ... The expansionist king was not doing well, battles were being lost, and at the battle and defeat at Kiel in the spring of 1628, Jens Munk seems to have been wounded. He returned to Copenhagen, where his new young wife cared for him until his death a few months later. ...
... Campbell spent two unproductive years in the Dease Lake area, trying to break the Russian American Fur Company's hold on the interior fur trade. An agreement between the H.B.C. and R.A.F.C. in 1839 freed Campbell to turn his attentions northward. Thomas Simpson and Peter Warren Dease had, in 1837, crossed a major new river, which they named Colville, during their excursion along the arctic coast. Campbell, who had learned from the natives of the "Toutcho" or "Great Water" to the north, was directed to push to the north in search of the headwaters of this new river. He completed the exploration in two stages, reaching the Pelly River in 1840 and descending that stream to its junction with the Lewes (Yukon) River three years later. Governor Simpson ordered Campbell to establish a trading post at the promising "Forks," but poor trading and provisioning conditions at Frances Lake and Pelly Banks and Campbell's own hesitations stalled the expansion until 1848. These were hard times for Campbell and his men, as starvation threatened almost every year. Finally established at Fort Selkirk, he was directed to explore the remaining distance between that fort and Fort Yukon. His 1851 voyage proved that both posts were on the Yukon River and completed Campbell's contributions to the exploration of the North. ... The strong opposition of the coastal Tlingit Indians to the H.B.C. presence culminated in an attack on Fort Selkirk in 1852 that left the post a charred ruin. ... The governor would countenance no further expense on the unproductive field and sent Campbell on a long-overdue furlough to England. The trip provided him an opportunity to circulate news of his discoveries. In particular, he helped the Arrowsmiths, famous map makers, add the Pelly, Lewes, and Yukon rivers to the map of the far northwest. His accomplishments had been duly noted. ... Still, his efforts helped bring the Hudson's Bay Company into the Yukon River valley and helped fill in one of the last remaining gaps on the map of North America. That alone was an appropriate legacy for a man driven to be a northern explorer. Robert Campbell's Yukon career ended with the debacle at fort Selkirk. He returned to Fort Liard in 1854 and from there was reassigned to the Athabasca district. He eventually achieved the rank of chief factor, but resigned his commission in 1871 under unfortunate circumstances. He retired to a ranch in Manitoba, where he died in 1894 at the age of 86.
... In 1912 Ernest C. Oberholtzer and Titapeshwewitan, an Ontario Ojibwa better known as Billy Magee, made a canoe voyage of some 3200 km, during which they explored Nueltin Lake and the Thlewiaza River, N.W.T. This epic journey, more arduous and commendable than certain of the acclaimed explorations that preceded it, has remained all but unrecorded to the present day. ... On 26 June 1912 Oberholtzer and Magee left The Pas, Manitoba, in an 18-foot Chestnut Guide Special. Their destination was Chesterfield Inlet, by way of the Kazan. Neither man had ever canoed north of Rainy Lake, and from the first Billy was unsettled by the prospect of strange Indians, far stranger Eskimos, and the treeless regions for which they were bound. He was 51 years old. Oberholtzer, 28, stood 5'6" and weighed 135 pounds. A month out from The Pas they reached Lac du Brochet, the remote HBC post and Oblate mission at the northern end of Reindeer Lake. There, as at Cumberland House and Pelican Narrows, they were warned against attempting so audacious a venture, especially since no guides were to be had. Undeterred, and with Tyrrell's map to steer by, they pushed up the Cochrane, then followed the Esker Lakes to "Theitaga" lake, today known as Kasmere Lake, just south of the 60th parallel. From here Tyrrell had gone northwest, to Kasba Lake and the Kazan. But it was now the 8th of August. Knowing of the hardships and perils Tyrrell and his men had experienced in navigating the coastline of Hudson Bay in open canoes late in the season, and realising that he and Magee could not possibly reach Chesterfield Inlet in time to get out, Oberholtzer chose instead to strike northeast, toward the Chipewyans' mysterious "Nu-thel-tin-tu-eh," or Sleeping Island Lake, where he hoped to find the vaguely charted Thlewiaza River and thereby make the Bay soon enough to get out ahead of winter weather. He and Magee now entered completely unknown territory, and Oberholtzer commenced time-and-compass mapping of their route. Following the river known today as the Kasmere, they entered Nueltin on 14 August. No white man had seen this enormous lake since Samuel Hearne crossed it in the winter of 1770-71. ... That Oberholtzer and Magee, complete strangers to the far North, canoed such a distance without mishap, and that the exploratory reaches of their journey were traversed without native guides, attests not only to their skills, fitness, and tenacity, but, above all, to the firmness of their friendship. An unassuming man, Oberholtzer never published a word about his odyssey. ... Ernest Oberholtzer devoted the rest of his life to the cause of conservation, indefatigably leading a decades-long campaign to preserve the Quetico-Superior country as an international wilderness. Concomitantly, he pursued his profound interest in the culture of the Ojibwas. ...
Rachelle Castonguay, Research and University Affairs Analyst, Office of the Northern Research and Science Advisor, Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, died tragically in the Air India plane crash on 23 June 1985 at the age of 32. ... While many of her colleagues and friends involved in northern studies remember Rachelle for her outstanding role in administering the Northern Scientific Training Program and, in particular, her dedication and contribution to university development of scientific expertise in the North, Rachelle's northern scientific focussed career was nonetheless diverse and extensive. Throughout her successful completion of a variety of research assignments, including a widely acclaimed study of land occupancy in Fort Good Hope, N.W.T., Rachelle demonstrated her deep knowledge of the Canadian North and sensitivity to the background and lifestyles of native people. On graduating with a B.A. (Geography) from the University of Ottawa in the spring of 1975, Ms. Castonguay began with the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development as a research assistant to prepare an inventory of the social content of the hearings of the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Inquiry. ... Prior to her enrollment in the Master's program in geography at the University of Ottawa, in 1977 Rachelle spent her summer in the Yukon working for the Alaska Highway Pipeline Inquiry .... In her own field of toponymic research, Rachelle subsequently undertook a study of historical and actual land occupancy ... using place names as a tool to illustrate land use occupancy. ... Complementary to this compilation and analysis of toponymic data, Rachelle's fieldwork to Fort Good Hope, N.W.T. (1979), supported by the Northern Scientific Training Program, was undertaken to gather actual place names as well as other information to obtain an insight on understanding the toponymic system of native people of the area. This material subsequently formed the basis of her Master's thesis .... Finally, prior to her appointment as Research and University Affairs Analyst, Rachelle's knowledge of the North and its people was enhanced during the course of her duties with the Northern Research Information and Documentation Service. ... While Rachelle was captivated by the North and the lifestyles of its culturally diverse population, she was also keenly interested in applying her northern experience and knowledge to problem solving in other plural societies, particularly Third World countries. ... and looked forward to a future career in the delivery of educational programs addressing such issues as under-development, cross-cultural communications and language. Rachelle's openness, tolerance and acute cultural sensitivity emerged, in part, as a result of her rural Franco-Ontarian upbringing and daily exposure to English and French cultures. Furthermore, her heightened sense of compassion and social consciousness drew her to actively participate in local and regional citizens' and women's advisory groups, as well as in African famine relief efforts. ...
After three years of illness, Tom English passed away in Seattle, Washington, on 5 January 1985. ... Tom was born and grew up in Washington, D.C. The undergraduate years, 1946 to 1950, were spent at Iowa State University in Ames, first as a journalism major, later as a zoology student. He continued at Ames with graduate work in zoology and statistics, receiving a master's degree in 1951 with a thesis on age, growth, and life history of carps in a local lake. ... Before receiving his doctorate at the University of Washington in 1961, Tom did graduate studies at the University of Oslo and in Bergen, Norway (1954-55); he also served in the U.S. Air Force at Fairbanks and near the North Pole (1956-58) and spent one year as instructor in fisheries biology at the University of Alaska (1958-59). His Ph.D. thesis treated the distribution and abundance of planktonic flatfish eggs in Puget Sound. Tom joined the teaching faculty of the then Department of Oceanography of the University of Washington in 1959. The next quarter of a century of his professional life was more than filled with teaching, research, participation in base-line studies for the state and federal governments and administrative work in the department. ... Tom's research interests revolved around problems of sampling design and the plankton of the Arctic Ocean. ... The common method of estimating stock size of fishes with pelagic eggs from integrating areas within contour lines of egg abundance was critically assessed and a better method was proposed. ... Tom chose to discharge his ROTC obligations of undergraduate days by entering the Air Force ... and, apparently, elected to be detailed to the Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory outside Fairbanks. ... he spent two summers and autumns on Drift Station Alpha, an ice floe near the North Pole .... The biological investigations were performed under contract with the Arctic Institute of North America. Besides being among the first to SCUBA-dive under the ice ..., Tom established in great detail what earlier polar investigators could only suggest: that the annual phytoplankton cycle under the ice is primarily driven by underwater light, which in turn depends more on snow melt than incident radiation. ... In the mid-sixties, Tom's continuing interest in the plankton of the Arctic Ocean was directed to Fletcher's Ice Island (also called T-3). Plankton collections were made in eight summer seasons between 1966 and 1973, and in all or most other months from 1968 through April 1974. The island drifted during this time from about 75° N north of Point Barrow, to beyond 85° N, to north of Ellesmere Island. In addition, summer collections were made in 1975 at the main camp of the Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment in the Beaufort Sea. Predominantly north of 80° N, Tom, his students, and his assistants collected the following (approximate numbers): 5500 samples each for temperature and salinity, 5000 for oxygen, 3300 each for phosphate, nitrate, and silicate, 6000 for chlorophyll, and 4000 measurements of photosynthesis (14C); further, 5800 phytoplankton and 11 000 zooplankton samples were gathered .... While the emphasis was on the upper layers, some sampling extended to the bottom. The enormous, truly unique body of analyses has only partly been evaluated .... Tom chose not to spend much of his energy on the dissemination of research results through publications but, like a real college teacher, to devote his time primarily to transmitting knowledge by classroom teaching, as well as guiding students doing research. ...