Holocene emergence of the south and east coasts of Melville Island, Queen Elizabeth Islands, Northwest Territories, Canada
Arctic, v. 31, no. 4, Dec. 1978, p. 415-427, ill., maps
ASTIS record 2031
Twenty-five radiocarbon dates from the coast of Melville Island show that there has been up to 100 m of Holocene emergence. This evidence of post-glacial rebound suggests there was significant late-Wisconsin glacier cover on or near the island. The Winter Harbour moraine on the south coast is thought to mark the maximum northward advance of the Laurentide ice. However, emergence for this area appears to be essentially complete, whereas the northeast coast is still recovering at a rate of approximately 0.35 cm/yr. Ice cover in the region to the northeast must, therefore, have been thicker and/or lasted longer than in the peripheral areas of the Laurentide ice, lending support to the concept of an Innuitian Ice Sheet, rather than local ice masses over the central Queen Elizabeth Islands. Unfortunately, there is an absence of fresh glacial landforms and stratigraphy that can be attributed to the Innuitian Ice Sheet. We suggest that this ice sheet may have had a thermal regime below the pressure melting point, thus depriving the ice of much of its erosive and depositional capabilities, but with a sufficient mass to account for the observed pattern of emergence.
Coastal cliff retreat along the Chukchi Sea coast from Barrow to Peard Bay is determined by comparison of 1949 and 1976 vertical aerial photographs. Results indicate that the cliffed coast line had a mean long-term retreat rate of 0.31 m/yr. This retreat is considerably lower than reported for the Beaufort Sea coast and suggests that offshore permafrost along the Chukchi Sea coast may be relatively scarce. Cliff retreat is lowest near Barrow, about 0.06 m/yr, and increases to the south. Migratory offshore bars, beach-borrow activity, and variations in annual wave energy levels due to storms cause temporal variation in the coastal erosion rates.
Seasonal variations of sea ice extent in the Davis Strait-Labrador Sea area and relationships with synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation
Arctic, v. 31, no. 4, Dec. 1978, p. 434-447, ill.
ASTIS record 2033
Using published data sources for south-eastern Baffin Island, Ungava Bay and the northern Labrador Sea area, a study of the general patterns of sea ice growth and decay has been made for the years 1964 to 1974. From a comparison of individual years an "early" and a "late" pattern of both ice advance and ice retreat are recognized. Mean daily sea level pressure patterns for June - July and for October - mid-November are examined and a relationship is established between the type of ice advance or retreat pattern and the synoptic circulation over the area. In the years of early ice retreat there is an increased frequency of southerly airflow over the region. Strong winds and the advection of warm air leads to the more rapid removal of the ice compared to years of late ice retreat. Similarly for the years of early ice advance there is an increased frequency of northerly and westerly flow, bringing lower temperatures and an influx of second-year and multi-year ice into the area.
Results from using an impulse radar sounding system on the North Slope of Alaska to detect the existence of water under lake ice are presented. It was found that both lake ice thickness and depth of water under the ice could be determined when the radar antenna was either on the ice surface or airborne in a helicopter. The findings also revealed that the impulse radar sounding system could detect where lake ice was bottom-fast and where water existed under the ice cover.
... The preliminary results pertaining to the various cultural stages of the Arctic Small Tool Tradition are presented with special emphasis on 1) the earliest appearance of the A.S.T. tradition, 2) pre-Dorset and transitional pre-Dorset/Dorset developments, and 3) the Late Dorset culture stage. The Thule culture continuum is discussed with particular reference to the earliest stages - 1) Nugdlit, and 2) Ruin Island, with its associated Norse cultural elements.
The small mammals of the Mackenzie Delta region, Northwest Territories, Canada
Arctic, v. 31, no. 4, Dec. 1978, p. 475-488, map, tables
Contribution - Boreal Institute for Northern Studies, no. 58
ASTIS record 2036
The paper reports on 3800 small mammals taken in taiga and tundra east of the Mackenzie River Delta between 1971 and 1974. Local distributions are given for all 100 species of small mammals recorded in the region, plus two accidentals. In addition, abundance, body and cranial measurements, and reproductive information is presented for the 8 species collected during the study. The taxonomic status of Clethrionomys rutilus platycephalus is discussed.
This paper provides a synthesis of Cree fish names as used in the eastern James Bay area communities of Mistassini, Waswanipi, Nemaska, Rupert House, Eastmain, Wemindji (Paint Hills or Nouveau Comptoir), Fort George and Great Whale (Poste-de-la-Baleine). ... A systematic study is important in part because some fish species of the area have elevated levels of mercury .... It is therefore important to identify the species correctly, and to check whether Cree fish names actually refer to species as recognized by western science.
Fat depots and muscle lipids were measured in ptarmigan shot at Longyearbyen in fall and in spring. In the fall the ptarmigan weighed 740 g of which l00 g was dissectable fat and 11.5% of the pectoralis dry weight was lipid. In the spring the fat depots were almost absent and muscle lipid was halved. Neither Alaskan nor Scandinavian rock or willow ptarmigan show comparable fat depots, but the muscle lipid levels compare favourably with values obtained for Spitzbergen ptarmigan. Even larger fat depots were found in the Spitzbergen reindeer and fall fat deposition is most likely an important metabolic adaptation in high-arctic herbivores.
... The present paper describes attack patterns and wounds inflicted on moose (Alces alces) by wolves (Canus lupus) and comments on attacks by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) on ungulates in Mount McKinley National Park, Alaska. ...
Dr. Paul Marinus Hansen, distinguished marine biologist, Fellow of the Arctic Institute of North America, and for many years Director of the Greenland Fisheries Research Organization, died in January, 1976. ... Paul Hansen was born in November 1901, in Hellerup, a suburb of Copenhagen. At the University of Copenhagen one of his professors was Dr. Adolf Jensen, the acknowledged founder of Greenland fisheries research, ... who continued as Director and Advisor on Greenland marine research until Paul Hansen took over in the years before the Second World War. In 1946, the research was officially reorganized in the formation of the Institute of Greenland Fisheries Research, with Hansen as leader .... Hansen's work stands as a model for the development of a fishery, based on abundant empirical evidence and sound theory. His monumental "Studies on the biology of the cod in Greenland waters" earned him the doctorate degree at the University of Copenhagen, and summarized the work of decades, of systematic and painstaking research. Later he discovered the wealth of shrimp in West Greenland waters and started another lucrative fishery .... He was in due course invested as Knight of the First Grade of the Order of the Dannebrog. ... He was a master raconteur, and held his audiences spellbound and laughing with his memories of Greenland life. Stored up in his capacious memory was such wealth of Greenland lore and recent history as would have made most excellent reading had it ever been printed .... Much of the economic development of Greenland during the present century is based on the work of Adolf Jensen and Paul Hansen - quiet, persistent, unspectacular scientific work (like most scientific work) that made possible the rational development of the cod, halibut, char and shrimp resources during the climatic warming that caused a shift from seal-hunting to a fishery economy. And indeed, Paul Hansen dealt with the sea mammals as well, and the control of the seal hunting. ... His bright and ebullient personality will be remembered by all his friends and colleagues for many years, in Canada as in his own Denmark and Greenland.