... Although some Viking woman undoubtedly preceded her onto the North American continent, Natalya Shelekhov became the first European female in Alaska when she and her merchant husband spent four years (1783-1787) on Kodiak Island. ... In Canada, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, Indian women likewise became the "country" (common law) wives of fur traders and trappers of both the Hudson's Bay Company and the North West Company .... By the 1820s men started bringing European women to Indian country .... Although very few white women lived in Indian country during this period ... more were steadily arriving .... "country" marriages with Indian and mixed-blood women became unacceptable .... for the most part such relationships were abandoned with the coming of white women .... The European wife, in her turn, was often a misfit in the new world, terrified to look about her for fear of seeing some of the results of her husband's earlier liaisons. ... The latter decades of the nineteenth century brought some of the first white women to the arctic coast of North America. They were whaling captains' wives, often with small children. ... During the 1890s gold and all the dreams that went with it brought considerably more women north than did whaling captains. ... Belinda Mulroney, a legendary figure of the Klondike stampede, invested a hard-earned $5,000 ... in cotton cloth and hot water bottles which she and two Indians floated down river to Dawson, to make for her a 600 percent profit .... The 1890s saw white women venturing into still another part of the far north. Josephine Peary, married to the explorer for 31 years, accompanied him on the Greenland expedition of 1891-92 (Peary 1893). ... The twentieth century witnessed a steady increase in the numbers of white women to be found in the north of Alaska .... There were also the dedicated wives of missionaries. ... Single women, almost always nurses or teachers, began to reach the north coast of Alaska duringthe second and third decades of the twentieth century. ... One who did survive and endure was, perhaps, the most exemplary woman ever to come to the Arctic coast - the nurse Mollie Ward Greist. Mollie, the wife of a well-to-do Indiana physician, was shocked when her husband suggested giving up his practice and going north as a missionary to the Eskimo. ... They arrived at Wales, Alaska, in 1920 and stayed there a year before replacing the aging, ailing Dr. and Mrs. Spence at Barrow, where they remained for sixteen long years with only rare periods of leave outside the territory. ... Mollie eventually became head nurse at the hospital, as well as stores manager .... Besides all of her other duties, Mollie, short of cash like most missionaries, ran the U.S. Weather Observatory for many years. ... At the same time that Mollie Greist was at Barrow quite a few other women found their way north. ... During the 1940s petroleum exploration brought many white men into the Barrow area, and a limited number of the men ... were followed by their wives .... After oil exploration stopped, construction of the Distant Early Warning Line (DEW Line) commenced in 1955 .... In summer there was an influx of contractors' wives, and a few scientists' wives came too. ... In the summer of 1956 Dr. Ingrith Deyrup became the first unmarried woman scientist at the [DEW Line Research] Laboratory. ... While the camp was gradually adjusting itself to the idea that men obliged to be away from home for long periods wanted their families near them, the more forward-thinking Canadians were constructing Inuvik, N.W.T. ... Inuvik has welcomed single teacher, nurses and other workers regardless of sex or marital status, and in that respect stands in sharp contrast to Barrow Camp where the single woman has been less than acceptable. ... Very many other white women have resided in the Alaskan North. ... Even more white women have lived in the remote areas of Canada. .... Most of these people, despite the length of their stay, do not look upon the "bush" as being home. ...
MjTp-1, the Whirl Lake Site, near the southeast Mackenzie Delta in Canada, consists of upper and lower artefact components. The former represents occupation by Mackenzie Flats Kutchin Indians, and comprises a single family fishing site where nets or traps were employed and caches in permafrost were used for the storage of fish as autumn feed for dogs and for possible human consumption. From the lower level, which represents an earlier Indian occupation, have come tools such as lance points or arrowheads which are much more refined than tools from the Kutchin level. Dating by radiocarbon has placed the Kutchin level as an early 18th century occupation, and the lower microlithic level about 2000 years B.C. judging from its affinities with the Northern Transportation Company Docks/Franklin Tanks complex at Great Bear Lake.
This study was carried out to evaluate the environmental factors which influence the distribution and collapse of perennially frozen peats in the southern part of the discontinuous permafrost zone in Manitoba. The changes in permafrost bodies were measured by means of aerial photography carried out over a period of 20 years. About 25 per cent of the once occurring permafrost is still present. Melting appears to have exceeded aggradation of permafrost since about 150 years B.P. Two types of collapse were noticed: peripheral collapse around very small permafrost bodies; and a central collapse for the larger bodies. The amount of collapse has varied from 0 to 30 metres horizontally in a 20 year period.
The distribution and ecology of 26 mammals, 6 birds, and 1 amphibian are described. Northern range extensions are recorded for the pygmy shrew, arctic shrew, muskrat, heather vole, northern bog lemming and wood frog. A southern range extension of the arctic ground squirrel is noted following its being observed for the first time in Manitoba. Observation of a great blue heron at Churchill, far from its usual range in southern Manitoba, is also recorded. The number of species of small mammals on two-hectare quadrats in marsh, prairie, shrub, and savanna along the grassland-coniferous forest transition in southern Manitoba was 1.8 to 3.0 times greater than in beach-meadow, tundra, shrub, and open-forest quadrats along the coniferous forest-tundra transition of northern Manitoba, while the total population was 1.8 to 3.4 times greater.
Observations made along the northern Alaskan coast during 1972 served to indicate the processes by which arctic winter beach features are formed. In sub-zero (centigrade) temperatures ice forms on the surface of brackish lagoonal and estuarine waters, and is often moved offshore by wind-generated and tidal currents. When waves, wind, and storm surges coincide with the presence of ice in the nearshore zone, the ice and frozen swash mass are deposited contiguously with sediment on the beach as distinctive ice and ice-sediment structures. These structures include ice-slush berms, ice-sediment interbedding, and buried ice boulders.
An SCR 718 radar altimeter, mounted on a sledge towed by a motor toboggan, was used to measure ice thickness on parts of the Devon Island Ice Cap, the ice cap on northwestern Ellesmere Island, the Meighen Ice Cap, and the southernmost of the four ice caps on western Melville Island. No echoes were received where the ice thickness exceeded about 800 m. Techniques are described and results presented as bedrock contour maps. On Meighen Ice Cap results of soundings with two radars of different frequencies did not differ significantly but showed some discrepancies from the results of a gravity survey.
Susceptibility to environmental impact in the Queen Elizabeth Islands
Arctic, v. 27, no. 3, Sept. 1974, p. 234-237, 1 map (folded)
Devon Island IBP Project contribution, no. 20
Canadian Committee for the IBP contribution, no. 291
ASTIS record 10276
Exploration for oil and gas is proceeding on a rapidly increasing scale in the Queen Elizabeth Islands, and the region needs therefore to be assessed comprehensively in terms of susceptibility of habitat to physical disturbance. ... The evaluation is however necessarily provisional, since only a small part of the total land area has so far been the subject of detailed biological description. Areas likely to be ecologically critical are delimited with the object of assisting governmental and industrial planning. ... Land areas were subdivided into four broad categories based largely on observations made by the present authors. ... The categories are as follows: 1) Polar Desert (31% of land area): susceptibility low .... 2) Polar Semi-desert (25% of land area): susceptibility moderate .... 3) Diverse terrain (22% of land area): susceptibility high in many sites. ... 4) Large meadows (<2% of land area): susceptibility high .... While biological diversity and plant cover are far less in the High Arctic than in the warmer mainland Arctic, there are numerous areas where the land is susceptible to disturbance. The most common forms of degradation are sheet and gully erosion in areas of sparse plant cover, and the softening in summer of slightly disturbed surfaces on moist, fine-grained substrates. This situation contrasts with that in the Low Arctic where removal of vegetation and potential thermokarst are of great concern. In relatively small areas of high plant cover, surfaces have a susceptibility similar to the extensive tundra areas farther south. The biological consequences of disturbance can be much greater, however, not because of deleterious effects on the landscape alone, but because these isolated rich sites comprise the bulk of the energy base for the remainder of the terrestrial food web.
Bryobrittonia pellucida was first described by R. S. Williams from sterile material collected in April 1899 on a bluff of the Yukon River, just below Dawson City, Yukon Territory. This species, which Williams placed in the monotypic genus Bryobrittonia, was considered for several decades to belong in the Pottiaceae. In 1953, Steere described sporophytes from specimens collected in the Brooks Range, Alaska. The presence of large, campanulate calyptrae ...; erect, 8-ribbed capsules; and double peristome are all characters of the Encalyptaceae. As Steere pointed out, Bryobrittonia should be placed in this family and retained as a genus separate from Encalypta. ... In the summer of 1973, while collecting in the Grande Cache region, north of Jasper National Park, Alberta, Wilbur Peterson and the present author found Bryobrittonia pellucida in quantity along a small stream at Sherman Meadows, about 150 km. south of Grande Prairie. Later in the summer they collected the species along small streams in the Yukon Territory in the Whitehorse area, and with sporophytes at Dawson City and in the Mt. Klotz region of west-central Yukon. In 1972, collections were obtained from the Kluane Lake region of southwestern Yukon. All of the collections were from sandy silt banks beside streams. The Alberta collections were from 1220 m. elevation in an area of Pinus contorta and Picea glauca in the upper montane zone and are approximately 900 km. south of its previously known range. ... After Williams made his collection at Dawson City, Bryobrittonia pellucida was not rediscovered until Persson published details of two collections from the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Steere reported numerous collections from the Brooks Range, Alaska, as well as Coppermine, N.W.T., and Prince Patrick Island in the western Canadian Arctic. It has also been reported from Peary Land in northern Greenland, northern Ellesmere Island, and Axel Heiberg Island. Brassards added an additional locality on northern Ellesmere. Savicz-Ljubitzkaja and Smirnova recorded it as occurring in the Polar Urals and eastern Siberia (probably near the Lena River). Examination of material in the National Museum of Canada has revealed additional locations of the species in the Nahanni River region of the southwestern Mackenzie District, the Mackenzie River delta in north- western Mackenzie District, and in the Kluane Range region of southwestern Yukon Territory. The distribution of Bryobrittonia pellucida, as it is presently known in North America is shown on Fig. 2 and its altitudinal range along the western cordillera in Fig. 3. ... Although the presence of these species in disjunct localities in the alpine or upper montane zones of the Rockies may be the result of recent long distance dispersal from more northern populations, it seems more likely that these species survived at least the Wisconsin glaciation in situ in refugia, far south of their continuous Arctic range. The importance of alpine refugia has been long underrated in North America and it is likely that many of the arctic circumpolar species will be found in alpine habitats of western Alberta, northwestern British Columbia and particularly in the unglaciated alpine regions of the Yukon.
Hot springs provide distinct local environments wherever found but are of special interest within the otherwise cold-dominated taiga. Although the areas involved are very small they offer unique biological settings whose study provides interesting insights into the thermal adaptations and the persistence of plant and animal species. Unfortunately, these areas are attractive for local exploitation which usually destroys the sites as natural entities, and most of the larger and more accessible springs have already been modified by such activity. Current interest in geothermal energy may place further pressure on these sites. Accordingly, we have attempted to relocate, and assess the present status of, a number of the 21 hot springs listed for the "Yukon basin" in Waring's classic report of 1917. Dall Hot Springs near Dall Mountain (20 miles northwest of Stevens Village on the Yukon River) was visited by us in June 1971. ... The presence of a few old logs indicated that there had once been a structure over one of the warm streams ... Waring reported hot springs near the headwaters of the Selawik River. ... the springs were easily located in two distinct areas about ¼ mile apart on one of the highest tributaries of the river. ... In July 1971 we travelled about 120 miles southward along the Elliot Highway to the Hutlinana River and then walked 7 miles up-stream to the hot spring. We found a trailer on a mining claim about 100 yards further on across the river in a bulldozed clearing. ... In August 1971 we flew to Horner Hot Springs which is about 1 mile north of the Yukon River, 5 miles below Kokrines which is 5 miles below Tanana. ... there was no water issuing from the ground there. We saw no evidence of recent activity, but there were numerous relics dating from an earlier period, such as pipes, cans and utensils. From this point we flew 15 miles north over the Melozitna Hot Springs, the area around which is now being developed with an air strip, a house, a greenhouse, a swimming pool, etc. ... Fifty miles to the north of Tanana are the Kilo Hot Springs on the Kilolitna River which form a distinct area of vegetation in largely treeless surroundings in which we saw the remains of what appeared to be a square log structure - perhaps a pool. ... About 12 miles to the northeast of this lake are the Ray River Hot Springs .... we flew over the Tolovana Hot Springs (20 miles to the southwest of Livengood). Their natural setting appeared to be completely monopolized by a swimming pool. In July 1972 our colleague Peter Shaughnessy and his wife walked for 2½ days north from Walker Lake to some hot springs on the Reed River .... A small piece of rusty metal and an old flat piece of wood were the only signs of human occupation. ... Waring and others have reported 5 small springs between the Yukon and Tanana rivers within 150 miles of Fairbanks. ... On Serpentine Creek, a tributary of the Salcha River, we found a group of large poplar trees which were out of character among the spruce at this altitude. There was no water issuing from the ground, but the absence of snow indicated an obvious geothermal influence. On Paldo Creek, another tributary of the Salcha, a large mound with a pothole in the middle was ringed on the river side by deciduous trees, although all the other trees were spruce. We could detect no warm water flowing from it, but the snow appeared lighter among the deciduous trees. The springs on Big Windy Creek, a tributary of Birch Creek, were located in a steep, rock-walled canyon .... On Flat Creek, a tributary of the Charley River, a ... snow-free mound gave some suggestion of thermal activity, but no water could be seen draining from it and there was no vegetational effect. It was likewise not possible to positively identify the spring reported to exist near the headwaters of the Charley River . ... All in all these reported springs in the Yukon-Tanana uplands appear to be of very limited significance. Although there are no true hot springs on the north slope, a site visited by our colleague ... in August 1971 is of interest. It was on the Ivishak River, north of the Brooks Range, and springs there were easily identified from the air by the presence of large poplars otherwise foreign to the area. ... We have not yet reconnoitered the other hot springs listed by Waring for the Yukon Basin - i.e., those on Little Minook Creek, west and north of Glacier, on the Alatna River, near the Innoko River, near Iditarod, near Whitefish Lake, near the Tuluksak River, and on a tributary of the Little Melozitna River.
A total of 10 persons, including members of faculty, graduate students and assistants were involved in the 1973 field season of the University of Colorado in both northern and southern Cumberland Peninsula. The major objectives of the research undertaken were: (a) to study the Quaternary geology and geomorphic processes operating within the Baffin Island National Park and on the Peninsula in general; and (b) to study the energy balance and break-up pattern of the Home Bay fast-ice sheet. ... During the 1973 field season this research was expanded to include significant portions of the southern part of Cumberland Peninsula and of traverses through the main north-south passes of Pangnirtung Pass and the Padle/Kingnait fiords trough. ... Field work was also carried out on the Tertiary basalts at Cape Dyer during which particular attention was paid to the weathering of the basalts and the vertical and horizontal extent of active ice during the Quaternary glaciations. The basalts were free from Precambrian erratic rocks from the west, and the maximum extent of glaciation appears to be marked by weathered lateral moraines below the lower DEW Line site. Marine shells were found associated with these tills and will be uranium series dated. Investigations in Pangnirtung Pass and the Kingnait/Padle trough to the east revealed thick deposits of "bedded sands". These deposits, which are probably colluviated loesses, are interbedded with thin organic partings and thicker units of peat. The deposits vary between 0.5 m. and 5 m. in thickness. Buried soils were found underlying late- and possibly mid-Wisconsin moraines in Pangnirtung Pass. These together with samples from the buried sands are in process of being radiocarbon dated. Studies in the diffluent valleys (cols at about 600 m. above sea level) leading from Pangnirtung Pass eastward towards the Padle/Kingnait trough suggested that early Wisconsin ice flowed eastward from the Pangnirtung Pass but that much of the area was ice-free by late Wisconsin time, and possibly well before that. Studies were made on the south coast of Cumberland Peninsula, and shorelines and moraines delimited. A traverse was made (from the southwestern margin of the Penny Ice Cap south along the Ranger River to Clearwater Fiord. Pronounced weathering breaks occur across specific moraines, and some of the moraines close to the Penny Ice Cap appear surprisingly old. ... The study of surface energy budgets of the fast-ice of Home Bay was continued in 1973 when measurements were taken over the period from early spring and through summer break-up and subsequent freeze-up in late autumn. Studies of the fast-ice morphology during the ablation period were carried out from field surveys and satellite imagery. Seasonal variations in temperature, and salinity of the near-surface waters in the vicinity of Broughton Island, were investigated in relation to ice and current conditions. It is expected that further measurements on the ice due to be taken during the 1974 summer season will complete the basis for a description of the annual fast-ice cycle. A program of meteorological observations was conducted at INSTAAR's Broughton Island base during the summer and autumn months of 1973. In addition to conventional measurements, a continuous record of global and net radiation was obtained which was supplemented by measurements relating to atmospheric transmissivity and the radiative characteristics of clouds. The accumulated results of four summer and two winter seasons radiation studies are being analysed as the basis for a radiation climatology of the eastern Baffin Island region. Studies of the synoptic climatology of the Baffin Island region are proceeding, with climatic data and energy budget parameters incorporated into the basic catalogue of synoptic types. ... The Boas Glacier (67°35' N, 65°16' W) was resurveyed for the fifth consecutive summer. The 1973 ablation season was one of net loss of 0.42 m. water in accordance wi th an apparent pattern of strong mass gains and losses in alternating years. There has been a net gain of 0.40 m. water since August 1969. Long-term monitoring of this glacier seems justified from its already established position as a benchmark glacier for the northeast side of the Cumberland Peninsula.