Oonark was born in the area around Garry Lake and the Back River about 1906. She was married very young, as was customary among the traditional Eskimos, and had many children, eight of whom survived. Her husband died ... (around 1952). At that time there was a famine in the Garry Lake region and Oonark and one of here daughters were starving. They were rescued by a Government Forces plane ... and were taken to Baker Lake .... She was introduced to drawing by some school teachers, and some people from the Wildlife Service who gave her pencils and paper. ... Her drawings were first exhibited in the form of prints (executed by other Eskimo craftsmen) in 1960. ... Oonark also does sewn felt wallhangings, a number of which were recently exhibited in Toronto. ... When I met Oonark and her interpreter, Ruby Angoateegota Arngnaknark, on the occasion of her exhibition of drawings at the Canadian Guild of Crafts in Montreal, Quebec, we talked about what significance here drawings had for her. I asked whether they meant anything specific for her and whether she hoped other people would learn something from her pictures. Ruby replied that Oonark probably didn't think about such things because "they are not in the Eskimo language" .... Much of Oonark's drawing seems to be done to please the prospective buyer or the crafts officer (for whom the artists have great regard). ... Oonark doesn't have any of her drawings in her house - as Ruby explains there was no notion of "art" in Eskimo life. They view their art primarily as something to sell, in order to be able to buy what they need or want. ...
Heavy exploitation until about 1910-11, so drastically reduced muskoxen populations that they were thought to be extinct, or nearly so, north of Great Bear Lake. Following a few earlier sightings, they have been seen with increasing frequency since 1953. They now occupy, with one major exception, the areas where they were known to have been plentiful, and their population is estimated to be at least 425 animals.
Distribution et abondance du bœuf musqué au nord du Grand lac de l'Ours. Jusque vers 1910-11, la chasse excessive du bœuf musqué avait tellement réduit les populations de cet animal au nord du Grand lac de l'Ours, qu'on les croyait éteintes ou presque. Depuis 1953 et à la suite de quelques observations plus anciennes, on a aperçu ces groupes avec une fréquence croissante, si bien qu'ils occupent maintenant, à une exception près, toutes les aires où ils furent jadis nombreux. Leur population est estimée à au moins 425 têtes.
A study of soil microorganisms of the Inuvik area (68°21'N, 133°40'W) was carried out during the summer of 1964. In almost all samples taken, psychrophilic, mesophilic, and especially thermophilic bacteria were found in greater numbers than in samples obtained from northern and southwestern Alaska. These studies also demonstrated that the soil microflora in this area was more varied physiologically and metabolically than in its Alaskan counterpart, and that the Canadian soils were warmer, had better drainage, and had certain chemical and physical properties that could account for the differences in bacterial numbers.
Études sur les microorganismes du sol, Inuvik, T. du N.-O. Au cours de l'été de 1964, on a mené une étude des microorganismes du sol dans la région d'Inuvik (68°21'N., 133°40'W.). Dans tous les échantillons recueillis les bactéries psychrophiles, mésophiles et surtout thermophiles ont été trouvées en plus grand nombre que dans des échantillons provenant du Nord et du sud-ouest de l'Alaska. Ces études ont aussi démontré que dans cette région, la microflore du sol était physiologiquement et métaboliquement plus variée que son équivalent alaskien, et que les sols canadiens étaient plus chauds et mieux drainés, et possédaient certaines propriétés chimiques et physiques qui pourraient expliquer ces différences dans les comptages de bactéries.
Recent studies have demonstrated a striking correspondence between air mass frequencies and the position of the North American forest border. Analysis by principal component techniques demonstrates that relative abundance of certain species in a number of kinds of plant communities found in central northern Canada is strongly correlated with the frequencies of given air mass types. The conclusion is reached that distribution and frequency of occurrence of at least a number of species found in the plant communities of that region are markedly influenced by climate. In addition, the result can be interpreted as evidence supporting the continuum theory of species distribution in vegetation of the region.
Rapports entre la végétation et les fréquences des masses d'air, pour la forêt boréale et la toundra. De récentes études ont démontré une correspondance frappante entre les fréquences des masses d'air et la position de la limite de la forêt en Amérique du Nord. Une analyse démontre que l'abondance relative de certaines espèces dans un bon nombre de sortes de communautés végétales que l'on retrouve dans le centre du Canada nordique est fortement liée aux fréquences de types donnés de masses d'air. On en arrive à la conclusion que la distribution et la fréquence d'au moins un certain nombre d'espèces présentes dans les communautés végétales de cette région sont fortement influencées par le climat. De plus, on peut interpréter ce résultat comme une preuve à l'appui de la théorie du continuum de distribution des espèces de la végétation de la région.
The soils around Resolute, southwest Cornwallis Island, are mapped and described. Polar Desert, Lithosol and Tundra gley are identified as the main genetic soils. Polar Desert Soils and Lithosols are found on dry, moisture-shedding sites, whereas some Bog soils are intermixed with Tundra gleys in wet, poorly drained and plant colonized sites. Subdivisions of soil series are associated with terrain units, which are regarded as a useful differentiating basis among arctic soils and as an aid in their mapping. Local variation within the three genetic soils is related to changes in parent material, terrain unit and percent plant cover. Weathering and pedogenesis are those of a cold, arid environment, and the Polar Desert soils are dominant in the study area.
Unités de sols et de terrain près de Résolute, île de Cornwallis. L'auteur décrit les sols autour de Résolute, au sud-ouest de l'île de Cornwallis, et il les cartographie. Il identifie trois sols génétiques principaux : polaire désertique, lithosol et gley toundrique. Les sols polaires désertiques et les lithosols se retrouvent en des sites secs et ne retenant pas l'humidité, tandis que quelques sols de marécage sont mélangés aux gleys toundriques sur des sites humides, mal drainés et colonisés par la végétation. On associe les subdivisions des séries pédologiques avec des unités de terrain, qui sont utiles comme base de différentiation entre les sols arctiques et pour aider à les cartographier. À l'intérieur des trois sols génétiques, la variation locale est liée à des changements dans le matériau d'origine, l'unité de terrain et le pourcentage de couverture végétale. L'intempérisme et la pédogénèse sont ceux d'un milieu froid et aride et les sols polaires désertiques sont donc dominants dans la région.
Comparison of elevations of archaeological sites and calculated sea levels in arctic Canada
Arctic, v. 24, no. 3, Sept. 1971, p. 210-228, figures, tables
ASTIS record 10155
Based on a study of postglacial uplift in the Canadian Arctic, it has been proposed that relative emergence can be estimated if the age and elevation of late-glacial marine limits are known. This suggestion is used to construct 5 maps showing the amounts of relative sea level emergence since 4000, 3200, 2400, 1600 and 800 BP. The archaeological sequence of coastal arctic Canada has been artificially divided into 5 corresponding 800-year periods. Eighty-four archaeological sites are examined; 71 of these appear to have been located with reference to contemporaneous sea level. The mean elevation of the 71 sites is only 5.2 m above the interpolated sea level for each period; the Spearman rank correlation between site elevations and interpolated sea level is 0.82. The maps can therefore be used to delimit area of search for cultural remains of specific ages in archaeological reconnaissance, but the relationship is not sufficiently close to allow the construction of a detailed chronological sequence using elevation data alone.
Comparaison des altitudes de sites archéologiques et de niveaux marins calculés, dans l'Arctique canadien. Sur la base d'une étude du relèvement post-glaciaire dans l'Arctique canadien, on a proposé que l'émergence relative peut être estimée si l'âge et l'altitude des limites marines fini-glaciaires sont connus. A partir de cette suggestion, on construit 5 cartes montrant les niveaux d'émergence relative du niveau de la mer depuis 4000, 3200, 2400, 1600 et 800 ans. Puis, on divise artificiellement la séquence archéologique du Canada arctique côtier en 5 périodes de 800 ans. Des quatre-vingt-quatre sites archéologiques examinés, 71 semblent localisés par rapport au niveau marin qui leur était contemporain, car l'altitude moyenne de ces 71 sites n'est que 5,2 m au-dessus du niveau moyen interpolé pour chaque période; la corrélation de Spearman entre l'altitude des sites et le niveau marin interpolé est de 0,82. Ces cartes peuvent ainsi servir à délimiter une aire de recherche de vestiges culturels d'âges spécifiques dans une reconnaissance archéologique d'une séquence chronologique détaillée n'utilisant que les seules données d'altitude.
A portion of the fuel oil spilled into the harbour at Resolute, Northwest Territories, late in August 1970 went ashore there and, as yet, a firm arrangement concerning cleanup has not been made. The oiling occurred mainly on the upper portion of the intertidal zone, but not above high water .... The oil was believed to have been a mixture of diesel fuel and a heavier fuel, perhaps as heavy as a Bunker C type, but was generally "light" enough so that some penetration into the gravel occurred. ... Apparently the spill occurred from a tanker with a cargo comprising a variety of fuel oils which, during a hose or tank cleaning operation, discharged an oil waste onto the water surface at a position just off the tank farm. At the time (believed to be late on 24 August or early on 25 August), the harbour contained a considerable amount of ice, apparently as much as 8 to 9 tenths ice cover in some places, which in turn contained the oil and limited its movement to the immediate shore to the north and east. A portion of the ice became quite heavily stained with oil and some of this ice eventually moved out of the harbour with the northerly winds of 1 September. However, ablation of a portion of the stained ice occurred while it was grounded on the intertidal zone causing somewhat heavier oiling there and patchiness in the distribution of oil which was visually quite evident on 3 September .... By 1 October the intertidal zone was covered with the ice and only a light stain was visible at the high water line. Recent experience and experiment have demonstrated that ice cover can provide effective control of spilled oil. It seems that the containment at Resolute was also quite effective and would have permitted consideration of a number of cleanup options. For example, the oil might have been pumped into containers ashore or into a ship or barge, or pumped in discrete amounts to other areas of ice cover in a direction away from the tank farm and burned. ...
The problem of whether seeds and microorganisms are able to remain viable in permanently frozen ground during a very long span of years was recently considered by Porsild et al. who germinated Lupinus arcticus seeds from fossil rodent burrows in permanently frozen silt deposited in a placer mining area in the Yukon Territory. Based on the geology of the locality, Porsild et al. estimated the age of the seeds to be at least 10,000 years. Moreover, in that and in previous papers Porsild suggests that seeds of Rorippa barbareaefolia, Descurainia sophioides, and Senecio congestus may be able to survive in permanently frozen silt as these species apparently are restricted to freshly disturbed soil within the placer mining districts. Discussing in general the problems of dating viable seeds in old deposits Godwin questions the dating of the Lupinus arcticus seeds because of the indirect method applied. In view of these studies and the investigations made by Ødum on the presence and age of viable seeds in Danish soils, Ester Creek placer mine west of Fairbanks, Alaska, was visited 16 to 19 July 1968. Some observations on the vegetation on the exposed silt and disturbed soil were made and soil samples were taken for further examination .... The contents of microorganisms in the soil samples were examined by using the dilution plate technique: 10 g of each sample were mixed with 90 ml of sterile water and placed on a shaking table for 20 minutes. Serial dilutions were made, and 0.1 ml of each of 10**-1, 10**-2, 10**-3 and 10**-4 suspensions were plated on Bengal Rose-, Sabouraud-, Cook-, and V-8-agar. Besides 1 ml of each suspension was added to test tubes with NIB. After one week of incubation at 4°C, 24°C, and 37°C the colonies were counted and the different strains isolated on slants with V-8-agar. The sample from the top soil showed c 10**3 fungi per g soil at 24° C, representing the following genera, known from similar localities: Cladosporium herbarum, Mortierella sp., Mucor circinelloides, Penicillium spp., Trichoderma viride, and unidentified, sterile imperfects and phycomycetes. ... Only a few investigations have been carried out to find living microorganisms in permanently frozen soil, and generally only the upper layers have been studied, because of the difficulties of sampling through permafrost. However Becker and Volkmannlo recovered 8 bacteria at 20 to 60 feet below the surface in permanently frozen soil near Fairbanks. Boyd and Boyd also studied permafrost soils from Barrow, Alaska, near Bison Lagoon, and found living bacteria at 8 to 15 feet. The distribution of Descurainia sophioides within the placer mine area and its extremely high frequency on the exposed muck does strongly support Porsild's theory. However, the fact that the seeds of the species are lacking in the investigated samples may lead to the alternative possibility that the ecology of the species is rather specific. Which factor or combination of factors is responsible for the germination and growth of the species on that particular substratum, ... cannot be determined without field experiments at the locality and further analyses; the high water content of the silt may appear to be a factor of importance. The investigation does not prove that viable seeds of Descurainia sophioides, Rorippa barbareaefolia, Senecio congestus or any other species are not present in permanently frozen soil; the negative result of the investigation, however, indicates that on this locality it is not very likely that they are present. ...
Larsen described the treeline west of Hudson Bay and particularly at Ennadi, Yathkyed and Dubawnt Lakes, as clumps of spruce, relict from a former more northerly distribution. ... Evidence collected by us in 1966 on the Dubawnt River system on the Mackenzie-Keewatin border, indicates that the spruce trees are re-establishing themselves and have moved northward and closer to Dubawnt Lake during the past one hundred years. ... Larsen's view that spruce has not re-establsihed itself during the last half century does not apply at Dubawnt Lake, but may be true at the Ennadai and Yathkyed Lake regions. ... The known changes in the treeline in the Dubawnt Lake area can be summarized as follows: the south arm of the Keewatin Glacier left the lake area possibly from 7.5 to 7.9 thousands of years before the present or as late as 5.5 thousand years ago. By 4 thousand years ago, a closed canopy forest extended half way up the east shore of Lake Dubawnt, leaving fossil podzols. Individual clumps and trees probably extended further north. A southern retraction of treeline followed, but a re-extension took place c. A.D. 1100 at the "little climatic optimum". A southern retraction again occurred and by 1770 Hearne recorded dead stumps 20 miles north of the treeline. Around 1870, satisfactory growth conditions existed within 2 miles of the south end of Dubawnt Lake and a minor northward extension took place. Re-establishment of spruce by means other than layering occurred by 1931. Less favourable growth conditions may have begun again in 1960.
The grand old man of Danish and international arctic exploration is dead. Miki, as he was known among friends, was a sailor, explorer, and author. Strangely enough he also became a government official. He went to sea at fourteen and had just received his captain's certification when he became a member of the Danish Expedition to East Greenland, 1900. From 1901 to 1902 he was cartographer to the Baldwin-Ziegler Expedition to arctic America; from 1906 to 1908 he was leader of the Anglo-American Polar Expedition to the Beaufort Sea and from 1909 to 1912 he led the "Alabama" Expedition to Northeast Greenland in search of the bodies and papers of Mylius-Erichsen and Hagen who perished during the "Danmark Expedition". During his first expedition he became interested in the well-being of the Angmagssalik Eskimos; during the last he realized the tremendous hunting possibilities for Greenlanders in Central East Greenland. He became the strongest advocate for establishing a settlement within that area, preferably in Scoresbysund. At every opportunity he urged and pleaded with the administration for this - but in vain. National feelings also became involved when a treaty giving special rights to Norwegian hunters in East Greenland was ratified. Miki used strong argumentation and hard words when presenting his ideas and feelings while the administration tried to evade the precarious question. Miki might have been respected in governmental circles but certainly he was not very well liked. Fortunately he did not care and characteristically he carried out his ideas by soliciting funds from private sources which enabled him to head the expedition that founded the Scoresbysund colony in 1924. In 1925 he headed a fishing research cruise in West Greenland waters. In 1926 and 1932 he again explored in East Greenland. When the Norwegian government in 1931 occupied parts of East Greenland he established the Scoresbysund committee and was its president until 1967. When the government finally recognized him and his ideas he became a member of the Danish delegation to the International Court in The Hague in 1932 in the case of Denmark versus Norway, and was appointed Inspector of East Greenland in 1933, a position he held until 1950. During and after these years Miki frequently visited East Greenland where the population loved him and made him an honorary citizen in 1964. Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, and learned societies throughout the world bestowed great honours upon him. In his own opinion the greatest of them all came from a big-hunter in Scoresbysund who told Miki on one of his last visits: "Miki, now you are old and soon you will die, but don't worry. Send your wife up here, and I will take good care of her". Miki's interest in Greenland and the Arctic, paired with a tremendous vitality, led to the revival of the Greenland Society whose president he was from 1933 to 1955, and honorary president from 1956. He also solicited funds for establishing the Danish Arctic Institute where he served on the board from 1954 to 1963. During World War II he was an advisor on Greenland to the Danish Embassy in Washington D.C. He was a Charter Associate and a Fellow of The Arctic Institute of North America, a Governor (1949-54) and finally an honorary Associate from 1957. He wrote a number of books about his expeditions, works on Greenland and Eskimo life and a five-volume autobiography. In spite of all his travel and publicity, his well-written books, and other great achievements, and the numerous distinguished honours he received, Miki was a humble man with the deepest respect for learning, science, scientists, and the true values of life. His humility made him a great and strong personality who will be remembered and honoured not only in our circle, but by all who knew him.