The matter of State jurisdiction over ice islands in the Arctic Ocean is no longer only an academic question raised by professors of international law. A recent incident involving the killing of a member of an American research team on Ice Island T-3 raises that question in a very realistic way. The purpose of this short paper is to review the relevant facts and to offer a few comments on the issue of jurisdiction in the light of the legal nature of the Arctic Ocean and of Ice Island T-3. On 16 July 1970, the shooting of the leader of a 20-man joint government-industry research team, one Bennie Lightsy of Louisville, Kentucky, took place in a hut on Ice Island T-3 (the third ice island sighted as a radar target, hence its name T-3), floating in the Arctic Ocean at 84° 47' North latitude and 106° 28' West longitude, within the so-called Canadian sector. Lightsy had gone to the hut to attempt to settle an argument over a jug of wine when he was shot with a rifle by one Mario Escamilla, a Mexican-born American citizen from California. Following a radio report about the incident, an American investigation team, composed of Naval and Coast Guard Intelligence officers and an Assistant U.S. Attorney, flew to Thule, an American Air Force Base in Greenland, and then to the ice island in question. Upon completion of the investigation, Escamilla was brought to the United States, after a change of plane at Thule, and landed at Dulles airport in Virginia. He was initially charged with murder in the first degree before a magistrate in the District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, within which Dulles airport is located, and was subsequently indicted by a grand jury for the lesser offence of second degree murder. The issue raised is whether the United States or Canada, or both, had jurisdiction over the alleged crime committed on Ice Island T-3. The complaint stated that the ice island was floating on the high seas within the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States of America and out of the jurisdiction of a particular State. The only other State which could have claimed jurisdiction, since the incident took place well within its arctic sector, was Canada. Having examined the possible bases for state jurisdiction in international law, the conclusion is that the United States has properly exercised its personal jurisdiction over the T-3 incident. It is submitted that the legal status of the Arctic Ocean is essentially the same as for any other ocean and that Ice Island T-3 may, for the present purposes at least, be assimilated to a ship. Consequently, the incident may be deemed to have taken place on an American ship on the high seas. It might be added, however, that a further question may arise under American domestic law, as distinguished from international law, whether the term "vessel" in the United States Code is capable of a sufficiently liberal construction as to include an ice island. If it is not, the United States should be able to assume its personal jurisdiction on the basis of the nationality of the accused person and the national character of the research station.
Monthly mean ice cover distributions for Hudson Bay have been derived, based upon an analysis of nine years of aerial reconnaissance and other data. Information is presented in map form, along with discussion of significant features. Ice break-up is seen to work southward from the western, northern, and eastern edges of the Bay; the pattern seems to be a result of local topography, currents and persistent winds. Final melting occurs in August. Freeze-up commences in October, along the northwestern shore, and proceeds southeastward. The entire Bay is ice-covered by early January, except for persistent shore leads.
Conditions de la glace dans la mer d'Hudson. À partir de l'analyse de neuf années de reconnaissances aériennes et d'autres données, on a pu déduire des moyennes mensuelles de distribution de la glace pour la mer d'Hudson. L'information est présentée sous formes de cartes et de discussion des éléments significatifs. On y voit que la débâcle progresse vers le sud à partir des marges ouest, nord et est de la mer; cette séquence semble être le résultat de la topographie locale, des courants et des vents dominants. La fonte se termine en août. L'engel commence en octobre le long de la rive nord-ouest et progresse vers le sud-est. Sauf pour les chenaux côtiers persistants, la mer est entièrement gelée au début de janvier.
Twenty-six species of Cladocera and 13 species of Copepoda were collected from lakes and pools in the Noatak River area of Northern Alaska. The lakes had an average of 14.50 species per lake and the pools 8.12 species per pool. Nine species were restricted to lakes and 13 to pools. Nineteen species occurred in both lakes and pools.
Le zooplancton crustacé de la région de la Noatak, dans le Nord de l'Alaska. Dans des lacs et des mares de la région de la Noatak, dans le Nord de l'Alaska, on a recueilli vingt-six espèces dans un lac et 8,12 espèces dans une mare. Neuf espèces ne se trouvent que dans les lacs et 13 dans les mares. Dix-neuf espèces se trouvent à la fois dans les lacs et les mares.
Temperatures were recorded continuously during spring and early summer in a shallow pond on Bathurst Island in the High Arctic; thawing was rapid. After the thaw, seasonal and diel differences within the water and mud showed that frozen substrate had a marked effect on mud temperature, but that the superficial mud received almost as much heat as the water immediately above it. Temperature summations suggested that even in favourable shallow habitats low mud temperatures dictate the life-cycles of more than one year of arctic chironomids. The maximum-minimum temperature midpoint was a satisfactory substitute for a recorder-obtained day-mean, and seasonal comparisons of pond temperatures in relation to bottom fauna could therefore be based on daily maximum and minimum mud surface temperatures.
Températures du printemps et du début de l'été dans une mare peu profonde de l'Arctique. Dans une mare peu profonde, sur l'île de Bathurst dans le Haut Arctique, on a enregistré de façon continue les températures du printemps et du début de l'été. Après le dégel, les différences saisonnières et quotidiennes dans l'eau et dans la vase montrent que le substrat pergelé a un effet marqué sur la température de la vase, mais aussi que la vase superficielle reçoit presque autant de chaleur que l'eau qui la recouvre immédiatement. Les compilations des températures suggèrent que même dans des habitats favorables parce que peu profonds, les basses températures de la vase dictent les cycles biologiques pluriannuels chez les chironomides de l'Arctique. La médiane des températures maximum et minimum peut être substituée à la température moyenne enregistrée; les températures maximum et minimum quotidiennes de la surface de la vase peuvent donc servir de base aux comparaisons saisonnières des températures de la mare en relation avec la faune du fond.
Circadian rhythms of Peromyscus maniculatus were studied at Heart Lake, Northwest Territories, in winter and spring of 1965-1966. Daily peaks of activity were of longer duration and higher amplitude in spring than in winter. In winter deer mice were frequently observed in torpor and most activity occurred at night. In spring daily peaks of activity began before dark and extended 4 to 5 hours into daylight of the next morning.
Variations saisonnières dans le rythme circadien de la Souris à pattes blanches, Peromyscus maniculatus, dans le Nord-ouest du Canada. Au cours de l'hiver et du printemps 1965-66, on a étudié le rythme circadien de Peromyscus maniculatus à Heart Lake, Territoires du Nord-Ouest. Les sommets d'activité quotidienne étaient de plus longue durée et de plus grande amplitude au printemps qu'en hiver. En hiver, on observait souvent la Souris à pattes blanches dans un état de torpeur et presque toute son activité se produisait la nuit. Au printemps, les périodes d'activité maximale commençaient avant la nuit et se terminaient de 3 à 4 heures après l'aube du jour suivant
The hypothesis that the ecological and cultural characteristics of Eskimo society lead to village Eskimo children having greater ability in visual memory than urban Caucasian children has been studied. A test of visual memory was given to 501 urban Caucasian and 125 village Eskimo children. Village Eskimo children demonstrated significantly higher levels of visual memory. Visual memory was also found to increase significantly with age. A follow-up questionnaire study indicated that about 65% of teachers in Eskimo villages noted the unusually high ability of Eskimo students in recalling visual detail or mentioned their high performance in tasks depending partly upon this ability.
La mémoire visuelle chez les enfants d'un village esquimau et chez des enfants caucasiens vivant à la ville. L'auteur a étudié l'hypothèse selon laquelle les caractéristiques écologiques et culturelles de la société esquimaude donnent aux enfants d'un village esquimau une mémoire visuelle plus grande que celle d'enfants caucasiens vivant à la ville. Elle a administré un test de mémoire visuelle à 501 enfants caucasiens de milieu urbain et à 125 enfants d'un village esquimau. Les enfants esquimaux ont fait montre de niveaux significativement plus élevés de mémoire visuelle. On a aussi constaté que la mémoire visuelle augmentait de façon significative avec l'âge. Un questionnaire complémentaire a indiqué qu'environ 65 pour cent des instituteurs des villages esquimaux ont noté une habileté peu commune des élèves esquimaux à se rappeler des détails visuels ou ont mentionné leurs commune des élèves esquimaux à se rappeler des détails visuels ou ont mentionné leurs grands succès dans des tâches qui dépendent partiellement de cette habileté.
The issue of U.S. Criminal jurisdiction to try Mario J. Escamilla for the alleged slaying of Bennie Lightsy, station manager on ice island T-3 (Fletcher's Ice Island) on 16 July 1970 was argued before U.S. Federal District Judge Oren R. Lewis in Alexandria, Virginia, on 5 May 1971. The judge found sufficient grounds for taking jurisdiction and proceeded with the trial. Escamilla was then convicted of involuntary manslaughter. He has appealed. Following are some observations on the jurisdictional aspect of the case. 1) It was evident throughout the hearings that the presiding judge wished, if possible, to decide the jurisdictional issue exclusively on the basis of U.S. domestic law, and that he was not disposed to address himself to abstruse questions of international law, once the Canadian waiver was on the record. At no point, therefore, did he express firm views on such matters as the international legal significance of T-3's origin, the possibility of permanent "possession" of such an island, the implications of a "ship" analogy as such for ice islands as a class, distinctions if any between ice islands and occupiable ice floes, and a host of other theoretical questions of universal, or at least arctic, applicability that might be considered of interest to an international lawyer. 2) In view of the very real, long continued, and unchallenged activities of U.S. Government agencies and Government grantees on T-3, the factual close connection between that particular ice platform and U.S. interests was so clear that the finding of proper criminal jurisdiction in the Escamilla case should probably not be given too broad a theoretical application. 3) One may argue that the case illustrated the extreme narrowness of the exclusively territorial basis for criminal jurisdiction (exceptions were noted) and that the judge was so troubled at the consequences of applying its pure logic in the Escamilla case that he chose instead to proceed on the basis of practical common sense and social responsibility, leaving it to others to split hairs over the meaning of commas in Section 7 of Title 18 of the U.S. Code or the analogies of ice islands with ships, guano islands, or commercial aircraft flying over the high seas.
The flora of the northwest coast of Greenland, north of 800 is not as well known as that of the northeast coast. Wulff collected about 70 species at various locations along the northwest coast between 81°25' and 83°06'N, and Simmons reviewed the earlier collections largely made at points south of 81°N. Two collections are reported from the vicinity of Polaris Bay, on the east side of Hall Basin at about 81°36'-40'N. Bessels lists 22 species collected there in 1872, and Hart lists 22 species collected by himself in May 1876, and in July and August 1876 by Dr. Coppinger of the same expedition. No recent reports are known of collections made in the Polaris Bay area. On 17 August 1958, I had the opportunity to spend a few hours collecting vascular plants near the shores of Polaris Bay (81° 36' N, 61° 26' W). Inland from the Bay a lowland gravel and clay plain extends east-wards towards Newman Bay. Along the coast of the Bay are dry, rocky-gravel and sandy terraces, with no prominent rock outcrops. A major river with its associated gravel and clay terraces and sand bars extends on to the coastal flats. Only a few coastal marshes exist above the intertidal zone which is very unstable owing to the action of large ice floes which are driven ashore. Generally the vegetation is sparse and is largely restricted to local areas favoured by more moisture. Collecting was restricted to the shores of the Bay for a distance of about one kilometre north of the river delta and for a distance of about 400 metres inland, onto the terraces of the lowland plain at a height of about 50 metres above sea level. ... The most significant range extension is for the littoral species Carex ursina, which had not previously been recorded north of 76° on the east coast and to 73° on the west coast of Greenland. This species was recently collected from 81° 25' N on the west coast of Ellesmere Island, but the present collection is the northernmost record of this species in the world. The collection of Stellaria monantha is a considerable range extension for Greenland, not having previously been recorded north of 78°, but is known from farther north in Canada. Several other collections - Poa alpigena var. colpodea, P. hartzii, Puccinellia andersonii, and Saxifraga rivularis - are important range extensions in northwest Greenland, but are known from higher latitudes in northeast Greenland. Puccinellia andersonii has not been collected as far north as this in Canada, but the other 3 species are known from higher latitudes. The collections of Carex maritima and Draba bellii are small northern range extensions in northwest Greenland. Several other species - Deschampsia brevifolia, Carex stans and Arenaria rubella would appear to be range extensions from Porsild's maps, but Ostenfeld reported them collected by Wulff at more northern latitudes in northwest Greenland. ... Ruling out any species for which the identification is in doubt, we can add 13 species from the lists of Bessels and Hart, giving a combined total of 50 species for the Polaris Bay area. This total is poor in number of species when compared with other areas of the High Arctic. Additional collecting will undoubtedly add other species, especially if habitats occurring at higher altitudes on Polaris Promontory, or further inland are included.
Weasels are the most widely distributed mammalian predators in North America. This paper reports the results of a study of short-tail weasel predation in northern Alberta and the Northwest Territories during the winter of 1964-65. ...
... Field work continued on [the late glacial and neoglacial chronology and recent crustal movements] program with the main emphasis being shifted to Narpaing Fiord and outer Okoa Bay. Marine limits were measured at many localities in the two areas and some samples of marine shells were collected for dating ... Studies continued on the task of subdividing the glacial deposits on the basis of a number of weathering criteria such as: depth of pitting, surface texture of boulders, soil development, X-ray analysis for clay minerals and Free-iron content. The combined results suggest several episodes of glaciation with a general decrease of glacier area and volume throughout the Wisconsin. ... A tentative lichen growth-curve is being developed based on a variety of evidence, and it is considered that the graph may usefully be extended back to 8,000 or 10,000 years ago. Work on a series of corrie moraines at the heads of Narpaing and Quajon fiords suggests that the outermost south-facing moraines at 600 m.a.s.l. may be 15,000 years old whereas the north-facing moraines at 550 m.a.s.l. are 8,000 to 10,000 years old. ... A series of 7 weather stations were established at different exposures and elevations in the area between the head of Quajon and Narpaing fiords. ... Mass budgets were measured in early June and mid-August using a variety of methods. Stakes, probing and pits were used to detail the progress of melting during the ablation season. In early June the specific net budget was + 0.42 cm ± 0.06 and in mid-August was + 0.38 ± 0.06 cm water equivalent. In complete contrast to 1969, no ice was showing on the glacier and the summer melt had been compensated by snowfalls throughout the "ablation" season. Surface lowering amounted to about 45 cm of snow and this was nearly identical to the mass added in the growth of superimposed ice. Because of low temperatures the glacier was acting nearly as a closed system. ...
The death of Dr. Jacques Rousseau on 4 August 1970 marks the end of an era, at least in French Canada. Scientists of such brilliant eclectism are few and getting fewer every day. He obtained a classical B.A. from the University of Montreal in 1926. He had already begun to attend Brother Marie-Victorin's lectures at the University's Botanical Institute in 1923, and enrolled as a full-time student in 1926 .... He obtained his Licence ès Sciences in 1928 and joined the staff as Assistant Professor, teaching genetics, paleobotany and economic botany. ... He completed his D.Sc. in 1934, with a remarkable thesis on the genus Astragalus in Quebec, and became professeur agrégé in 1935. ... After the Brother's tragic death in 1944, Dr. Rousseau succeeded him as Director, a post he held until 1956. ... Dr. Rousseau's reputation as an indefatigable field worker is based on his remarkable activities during the summers of some twenty-five consecutive years. He worked in the Lower St. Lawrence and Gaspé Peninsula in the twenties and thirties, crossing the Peninsula on foot in 1931, and giving valuable experience to a large number of field assistants. He worked on the North Shore, in Nova Scotia, and in the Magdalen Islands. In 1942, he crossed Anticosti on foot twice. During the summers of 1944 to 1947, and the winter of 1948 he worked at Lake Mistassini. In 1947, he travelled by canoe down the George River to Ungava Bay. In 1948, he canoed up the Kogaluk and down the Arnaud rivers, via Payne Lake, leading the first group of white men in this particular area. In 1949, with botanist René Pomerleau, he explored the Otish Mountains; it was on this trip that he suffered the first of a series of heart attacks that were to stop him ... twenty-one years later. In 1951, he explored Adloylik (Abluviak) Fjord on Ungava Bay, the Korok River and a part of the Torngat Mountains; he also flew to the New Quebec Crater (Chubb Crater). In the summer of 1965, he participated in an archaeologicalinvestigation of the Michéa site at Payne Lake: this was his last long field trip. ...Beginning in 1923 he was active in more than 70 different scientific associations, in the fields of botany, geography, history, linguistics, anthropology, folklore and human genetics .... He was a prolific author. His curriculum vitae and bibliography is a mimeographed document of over 85 pages, listing 550 texts, plus over 100 abstracts of papers he read at different scientific meetings. ... In the thirties, he was the most important of Marie-Victorin's collaborators in editing the monumental Flore laurentienne, writing the general identification key and three of the chapters. In his more than 40 years of activity, he described 130 botanical species, varieties or forms, and 8 botanical entities were named after him. From 1945 on, a large portion of his writings were concerned with Northern Quebec ethnobiology. He originated the concept of the Hemiarctic Zone, between the Subarctic and the Arctic, characterized by a mixture of tundra and boreal forest areas. ... There are few persons in the university world today who could claim to have had such a permanent - and quiet - influence in the student world. ...