We are now witnessing developments which may result in a final act of decision permitting a system of transportation, the trans-Alaska pipeline, for the southward flow of oil from the North Slope of Alaska to Pacific ports. Concurrently the goods and facilities necessary for pipeline construction and operation will allow a counterflow of materials and people northward, the people drawn by opportunities to participate in new economic ventures or simply to view and enjoy environments at present of limited access. The last, great wilderness frontier of the United States - Alaska - has long since been breached. Now the government of the United States must resolve a conflict between the forces of economic growth and those of environmental protection and preservation as to whether that breach shall be widened. ... One way to understand better the complex situation created by the urge to develop oil as against the urge to protect and preserve the environment is to break down the complex into the major issues constituting the whole. These issues can then be considered individually and, taken all together, can give a better appreciation of what is going on and provide a basis for prediction of what is likely to happen in the future. A few of these issues are mentioned below in very summary fashion. Each has its proponents and detractors. There is no opportunity here to illuminate fully the arguments and no attempt is made to be comprehensive. ... [The issues discussed include: the need for energy, the environmental crisis, the economic picture, the interest of the state of Alaska, the place of the federal government, national security, and native claims.]
Museum specimens of polar bear from the Pribilof Islands include the skull of an individual shot on St. Paul, and fragmentary remains of uncertain geologic age from a lava cave in Bogoslof Hill, St. Paul, once thought to represent a distinct species. Mammoth remains have been discovered from time to time beginning in 1836, and are here regarded as in part valid evidence that the mammoth actually lived in the area. The literature pertaining to these species on the Pribilof Islands is reviewed.
L'ours polaire et le mammouth dans les Pribilof. (Au musée Smithsonian) Les spécimens d'ours polaire des îles de Pribilof comprennent le crâne d'un individu abattu sur l'île Saint-Paul, et des restes fragmentaires, d'âge géologique incertain, provenant d'une caverne dans les laves du mont Bogoslof, sur Saint-Paul, et qu'on a déjà cru représenter une espèce distincte. On a découvert de temps à autre, depuis 1836, des restes de mammouth, et l'auteur les considère comme une preuve partielle valide que le mammouth a vraiment vécu dans la région. On passe en revue les références pertinentes à ces deux espèces pour les Pribilof.
Arthropods active on the surface of the tundra near Barrow, Alaska, were trapped throughout four summer seasons (1966-1969), using "sticky-board" traps. More than 95% of the arthropods (excluding Acarina and Collembola) captured were of the order Diptera. Adults of most species of Diptera emerged in the middle two weeks of July; the abundance of arthropods on the tundra surface was maximal at that time. Year-to-year variations in abundance of various arthropod taxa are related to prevailing weather conditions and to the cycle of tundra disturbance and recovery associated with the abundance of brown lemmings.
Modalités de l'abondance des arthropodes de la toundra selon les saisons, près de Barrow. Près de Barrow, Alaska, on a, ou cours des quatre étés (1966-1969), capturé au moyen de pièges à glu les arthropodes actifs à la surface de la toundra. Plus de 95 pour cent des arthropodes capturés (à l'exclusion des Acariens et des Collemboles) appartenaient à l'ordre des Diptères. Les adultes de la plupart des espèces de Diptères apparaissaient au cours des deux semaines du milieu de juillet : c'est à ce moment que les arthropodes étaient les plus nombreux à la surface de la toundra. Les variations annuelles d'abondance des divers taxa d'arthropodes sont liées aux conditions du temps et au cycle de déprédation et de reprise de la toundra selon l'abondance des lemmings
Observations on the glacial history of Livingston Island
Arctic, v. 24, no. 1, Mar. 1971, p. 41-50, ill., figures
Contribution - Ohio State University. Institute of Polar Studies, no. 178
ASTIS record 10137
Livingston Island, one of the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, has recorded at least three glacial events. During the oldest event, all areas of the island below 200 m were covered by an expanded island ice cap. At that time Livingston Island ice probably joined that of adjacent islands. A second, less extensive event, is recorded by deposits of both the inland ice cap and cirque glaciers. Between these two glacial events, a higher stand of sea level produced beaches and terraces at 10.6 m to 12 m above the present sea level. Following the second glacial event, a higher sea level produced beaches 6.1 m above the present sea level. A third, minor and probably relatively recent glacial event is recorded by push moraines in some cirques from which the ice has now receded.
Observations sur l'histoire glaciaire de l'île de Livingston. L'une des Shetland du Sud, en Antarctique, l'île de Livingston a vu au moins trois événements glaciaires. Au cours du plus ancien, toute l'île en bas de la cote 200 m a été recouverte par une calotte insulaire. À ce moment-là, la glace de Livingston rejoignait probablement celle des îles adjacentes. Un second événement moins étendu est enregistré à la fois dans les dépôts de la calotte et dans ceux de glaciers de cirque. Entre ces deux événements, un niveau marin plus élevé a produit des plages et des terrasses entre 10,6 et 12 m au-dessus du niveau marin actuel. Après le second événement, une nouvelle remontée du niveau marin a produit des plages à 6,1 m au-dessus du niveau actuel. Un troisième événement glaciaire, mineur et relativement récent, est enregistré dans les moraines de poussée de certains cirques dont la glace est maintenant disparue.
A spot-mapping technique was applied to obtain quantitative data on bird populations on 25-acre (10 hectare) plots in northern boreal forest habitats. The number of breeding passerines varied from 15 to 42 pairs per plot. The number of species varied from 6 to 11 breeding passerines and 4 to 8 non-passerines and non-breeding passerines. Biomass of the breeding passerines ranged from 3100 to 5496 grams per 100 acres (40 hectare). Members of the Fringillidae family contributed the highest percentage of the total avian biomass, followed by Turdidae, Parulidae, Bombycillidae, Sylviidae, Paridae and Tyrannidae.
Densités et rapports de biomasse chez des oiseaux nichant sur des aires d'étude. Dans des habitats de forêt boréale nordique, on a appliqué, sur des aires de 25 acres (10 hectares), une technique de cartographie ponctuelle pour obtenir des données quantitatives sur les populations d'oiseaux. De 15 à 42 paires de passereaux couvaient sur chaque aire. Le nombre d'espèces variait de 6 à 11 pour les passereaux. D'une aire à l'autre, la biomasse des passereaux couvant variait de 3100 à 5496 grammes par 100 acres (40 hectares). Le plus grand pourcentage de la biomasse aviaire totale était formé par les membres de la famille des Fingillidés, suivis par les Turdidés, les Parulidés, les Bombycillidés, les Sylviidés, les Paridés et les Tyrannidés.
This paper summarizes in non-tabular form the results of a study of Native voting behaviour in rural Alaska between 1958 and 1968. Election results from every precinct corresponding to a community identified by the Federal Field Committee for Development Planning in Alaska as "predominantly Native" were recorded on IBM cards. ... It should be noted that the resultant data pertain only to rural Native electoral behaviour. .... The Federal Field Committee for Development Planning in Alaska estimates that something over 70 per cent of Alaska's Natives live in 178 villages or towns that are predominantly Native - places where half or more of the residents are Native. Another 25 per cent of Alaska's Natives live in urban centres of Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, Ketchikan, Kodiak and Sitka. The remainder live in non-Native towns and in one- or two-family locations. It should also be noted that most Native villages have some resident non-Natives whose votes are included in the published precinct total. In the cases of Dillingham and Bethel, this non-Native population component is sizeable. ... Data show that 12,097 rural Natives voted in the 1968 general election. This is 4,931 more than voted in the general election a decade earlier, and represents a 69 per cent increase between 1958 and 1968. The number of Eskimo voters almost doubled during this period - from 4,485 to 8,640 - whereas the number of Southeast Indian (Tlingit, Haida, and Tsimpsian) voters stayed relatively constant - from 1,101 in 1958 to 1,218 in 1968, or an 11 per cent increase. Interior Indian (Athabascan) voters increased from 1,186 in 1958 to 1,674 in 1968, and Aleut voters increased from 394 in 1958 to 565 in 1968, 43 per cent and 41 per cent increases respectively. The largest number of Eskimos and Interior Indians voted in 1968. However, the largest number of Aleuts and Southeast Indians voted in 1964. ... Of the two major U.S. political parties, the Democratic party is clearly the stronger among rural Native voters in Alaska. (During the period 1960 to 1968, no candidate identified with a party other than the Democratic and Republican parties drew an appreciable vote.) In each election contest for U.S. president, state governor, U.S. representative and U.S. senator between 1960 and 1968 (5 general elections and 14 separate contests), the percentage of votes cast for Democratic candidates in the Native villages exceeded the percentage of votes cast for the same Democratic candidates in the state as a whole by an average of 12 percentage points. In none of the 14 single contests did the state-wide electoral support for a Democratic candidate exceed the Native village electoral support. Although the data show a clear over-all preference for the Democratic party in rural Native precincts, they also show that the patterns of party preference are not static. In 1968, for example, 60 villages (38 per cent of the total) registered a Republican or no clear party preference. This compares with 30 such Republican or competitive villages (19 per cent of the total number) in 1966, and only 11 (7 per cent of the total number) in 1964. Of the 54 villages which registered a Republican party preference in the five general elections between 1960 and 1968, 26 did so in only one of these elections. Of the 17 Eskimo villages that indicated a Republican party preference in 1960, only 9 did so again in 1968. The villages in individual election districts show different degrees of attachment to the dominant party. In the 1968 general election in the seven election districts controlled by Native voters, for example, villagers voted solidly Democratic in four districts ... and highly fragmented their vote along party lines in three districts .... The figures themselves offer no clues to the reasons for shifting party preference. ... .
Remore and uninhabited St. Matthew Island, lying 60 30 N, 172 30 W, on the continental shelf of the Bering Sea, is infrequently visited in summer and very rarely seen in the winter. The only signs of past human habitation are the wind-torn remains of a World War II naval observation station and the rectangular depressions of a couple of Eskimo house pits, of undetermined age, on the southwest side of the island. The last known visit to the island was during the summer of 1966. Our opportunity came on 6 and 7 February 1970, as a result of an oceanographic cruise aboard the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Northwind to study winter conditions in the ice-covered Bering Sea. At that time the island was covered with crusted, wind-glazed snow and locked in sea ice, with open water only along the south shore where large leads had opened up in the lee of the island. The weather was cold and very windy, temperatures ranging from 10°F to -20°F with a wind velocity averaging 30 to 40 knots, from the north. The afternoon of the 6th was clear, permitting a helicopter survey of the entire island. Most of the daylight hours of the 7th were occupied by ground investigations of the island under worsening weather conditions (overcast sky and 40-knot wind). The mammal population of the island is sparse .... We saw only arctic fox and reindeer, with no evidence of small mammals though they are known to exist there. ... Species observed on or in the vicinity of St. Matthew: Arctic Fox (Alopex lagopus), Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), Ringed Seal (Phoca hispida,) Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca), Thick-billed Murre (Uria lomvia), Harlequin (Histrionicus histrionicus), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), King Eider (Somateria spectabilis), Old squaw (Clangula hyemalis), Pelagic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), Slaty-backed Gull (Larus schistisagus), Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens), Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus), Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea). We found a single herd of 32 reindeer at the southeast corner of the island. The animals were large and appeared to be in good condition, with impressive antlers. They are the remnant of a reindeer population introduced in 1944 that experienced a spectacular increase to 6,000 animals before crashing to 42 in the winter of 1963-64. Klein visited St. Matthew in the summer of 1966 to study the remaining reindeer and collected 10 animals, including the last male. He left 32 animals, all thought to be female, and all of which survived the intervening three and a half years up to the time of our arrival on the island. The observed marine mammal populations in the vicinity of St. Matthew proved to be disappointing. ... Ringed and bearded seals and walrus were observed some distance to the east of St. Matthew, in the edge of the sea ice in Bristol Bay; walrus were seen in large numbers north of the island, in the vicinity of St. Lawrence, so it seems likely that there should be marine mammals present in the area. ... The bird fauna of St. Matthew and vicinity was more diverse than that of the mammal. Twelve species were seen around the island, all of which, with the exception of a snowy owl, were marine and were observed in the leads and polynyas of the sea ice. Most common were murres, harlequins, and oldsquaws. ... As the ship proceeded westward from St. Matthew toward the Siberian coast, murres, black guillemots, and 4 species of gulls were seen. Several slaty-backed and glaucous-winged gulls were seen, and 3 glaucous and 2 ivory gulls observed near 60°N, 175°W. [Interestingly] ... of all the gulls seen, the slaty-back was by far the most common. This species is not considered common in Alaska.
The Arctic Institute's research base on Devon Island was used by over twenty-five investigators and their field assistants during the 1970 summer field season, from late April to mid-September. There were two separately directed, but related, programs. One, a large integrated ecosystem study, was directed by L.C. Bliss of the University of Alberta and sponsored by the Canadian International Biological Program (IBP); the other was an Arctic Institute-sponsored comparative ecology project, under the direction of James A. Teeri. Substantial improvements were made to the Base Camp (located in the Truelove Lowland), and a total of 8 Parkall and Jamesway huts are now available as sleeping quarters, laboratories, warehouse, kitchen, and storage areas. In addition, a separate field camp was established about 8 km east of the base to facilitate the study of muskox, fox, and weasel. Local transportation was by two skidoo motorboggans, a double-tracked Ranger V vehicle and trailer, and a Massey-Ferguson tractor and trailer. Transportation between Resolute and the Base Camp was by Otter and Beaver aircraft. ...
In 1970 the Icefield Ranges Research Project (IRRP) conducted its tenth consecutive summer of interdisciplinary basic research in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon Territory, and in the valley and plateau region to the east where all aspects of the environment reflect the influence of those mountains. Summer field investigations began in April and ended the last week in August. And for the first time since the Project's inception in 1961, two programs have continued through the winter (1970-71). This opportunity to continue studies all the year round was made possible by the winterization of a log house; the work, begun in 1967 on the north side of the runway near the Kluane Base Camp, was completed with modern facilities in June 1970. This short paper briefly reviews the programs which were accomplished during the 1970 field season within the broad categories of glaciology, geophysics, physical geography, biology, and human physiology.
D.B. MacMillan, "Captain Mac", is no longer with us. As an Arctic sailor and oldtime sled driver he ranked with the greats of northern skippers. ... An iron body, conditioned by early gymnastic effort and sustained until the age of fourscore by conning his ship through the ice, kept him hale and mentally active until the end of 95 years. ... He was teaching school, inspiring his pupils in the Maine woods with a love of botany and geology, when Peary asked him to join his assault on the Pole in 1908. ... From [then] on the Arctic was his life. He started planning a new expedition with his Roosevelt cabin mate Borup in 1911, but Borup died, and it was 1913 before he got away on the "Crockerland Expedition". His "Four Years in the Frozen North" tells the tale of this project. ... In 1920 MacMillan commissioned the famous vessel Bowdoin named after his Maine college, a 60-ton auxiliary wooden schooner designed to buck ice in arctic waters. First he took a scientific party to southwest Baffin Island, then to Northwest Greenland, wintering on both occasions. ... The war years saw Bowdoin taken over by the U.S. Navy. At first MacMillan was her skipper, but later he was moved to a consultative desk job with the Hydrographer while others, less competent, did their best to ruin his stout schooner. But he was able to reclaim her and refit her after the war, and at the age of eighty was still sailing north. ...