Summarizes this Conference sponsored by the Arctic Institute of North America and held in Rensselaerville, N.Y., 8-10 May 1970. Resources development, ecological factors and human problems in the North were discussed. A concept of the North 50 yr hence is projected and the need is stressed for regulations to control environmental degradation.
The fishery potential of water originating in the Arctic Ocean is negligible, not because of water temperature or light penetration, but because of its vertical stability which keeps nutrients near the bottom. The subarctic mixed water is very productive. The marine subarctic zone on the Atlantic side includes Ungava Bay, Labrador coast, Newfoundland waters and the north part of the Gulf of St Lawrence. The very low abundance of fish in Hudson Bay is briefly discussed and notes given on the appearance, economic importance, geographic ranges and uses of some 20 species including shrimp, crab, mussel, clam and squid.
Sur le potentiel de pêche des eaux marines du Nord canadien. Dans les eaux arctiques (originaires de l'océan Arctique), le potentiel de la pêche est négligeable. Le Subarctique, région d'eaux mixtes, est beaucoup plus productif et alimente déjà des pêcheries maritimes. Pour satisfaire aux demandes du marché actuel, il y a un besoin pressant de méthodes modernes de traitement du poisson. On attire ici l'attention sur les possibilités qu'offrent certaines espèces, comme le requin du Groënland, le flétan du Groënland, le capelan, le sébaste et la crevette. On insiste sur l'importance des changements du climat marin.
The floor of the Arctic Ocean in photographs
Arctic, v. 23, no. 3, Sept. 1970, p. 175-189, ill., figures, table
Publication - Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, no. 1581
ASTIS record 10118
Over 2,000 usable bottom photographs have been taken in the western Arctic Ocean. The 87 stations cover the major geomorphic provinces of this part of the Arctic Basin, including the Alpha Cordillera, Mendeleyev Ridge, and Canada Abyssal Plain as well as smaller features. The ridge and plain provinces differ markedly in their bottom characteristics. Scattered rocks, living animals and indications of bottom current are most prevalent on the ridges. Trails are most abundant on the abyssal plains. The differences are attributed to bottom current distributions and turbidity currents. Bedrock outcrops were observed on the tops of two knolls on the Mendeleyev Ridge.
Le fond de l'océan Arctique en photographies. Dans la partie occidentale de l'océan Arctique, on a pris plus de 2,000 clichés du fond sous-marin. Les 87 stations couvrent les principales provinces géomorphologiques de cette partie du bassin arctique et comprennent la cordillère Alpha, la dorsale de Mendéléev et la plaine abyssale canadienne, ainsi que des reliefs de moindre importance. Les dorsales et la plaine abyssale diffèrent beaucoup dans leurs caractéristiques de fond. Sur les dorsales, des roches éparpillées, des animaux vivants et des indices de courants de fond dominent. Dans la plaine abyssale, les pistes d'animaux mains sont abondantes. On attribue ces différences à la distribution des courants de fond et aux courants de turbidité. On a observé des affleurements du soubassement sur le sommet de deux monticules de la dorsale de Mendéléev.
Reports 4 Aug - 3 Sept 1953 observations at this lake at 1800 ft elevation in a large shallow basin in the Melville Hills of Mackenzie District. This belated note is prompted by the lack of other investigations there and by the fact that most of the breeding-bird records constitute range extensions. Only 35 bird species were recorded. The absence of some species could be correlated to an absence of varied habitat: no extensive willow thickets and no rock outcrops. Eleven mammalian species were seen. A barren-ground grizzly was observed to approach a muskox and turn away. There is no known record of a grizzly killing a muskox.
Observations sur les oiseaux et les mammifères du lac Bluenose. On décrit les oiseaux et mammifères observés au cours d'une exploration biologique du lac Bluenose, par 68º28'N et 119º45'W. On a vu trente-cinq espèces d'oiseaux, dont beaucoup étaient en train de couver et dont nombre constituent des extensions de leur domaine connu. On a identifié onze espèces de mammifères. Un manque de variabilité dans l'habitat est probablement le principal facteur qui limite le nombre des espèces, surtout d'oiseaux.
Gives a detailed description of a 53-min contest between a male Canis lupus and a 5-6 yr old bull Ovibos moschatus wardi on Bathurst Island, 28 May 1968. The wolf's maneuvers succeeded in exhausting the muskox. The wolf returned to feed on the carcass for four days succeeding the kill, at least three more times during the summer and, accompanied by a female, fed on it briefly six times in June-Aug 1969.
Attributes the failure of reindeer to return to summer ranges, after being trucked there 150-300 km from winter ranges, to destruction of the herds' social organization, the importance of uninterrupted learning of the migratory route, disorientation caused by unfamiliar winter areas, and a large proportion of inexperienced animals in the herds.
While sampling No-name lake, which is located in the Tanana Valley, Alaska, at 63°48'N., 144°35'W., we observed numerous bubbles containing mixed populations of photosynthetic bacteria and algae. Most of the material consisted of purple, pink and green colonies of bacteria. Few algae were present, and those were primarily life-cycle stages of Chlamydomonas, but the population was dominated by photosynthetic bacteria. This occurrence of large numbers of organisms in complex populations differs substantially from previous reports of organisms in lake ice. The ice environment was somewhat unusual in that numerous overflows had occurred during the winter. In these circumstances the rate of accretion at the bottom of the ice sheet is much reduced, temperatures remain close to the freezing point and free water can occur within the ice. The water below the ice was anoxic and this, in combination with the favourable physical factors and presence of bubbles, may have been responsible for the unusual occurrence of organisms in the lake ice.
The resource frontier is defined as beyond the agricultural fringe in Western Canada and on the Shield in the East. Five categories termed insular, partite, arterial, periferal and bush squatters, create problems for government and the local population in health, hygiene, education, forest-fire control, poaching, pollution, etc. These squatters are natives and Euro-Canadians attracted by seasonal employment and without adequate housing. There is little control over the erection of structures, and conflict between unregulated settlement and community planning. There are few data on the origin, numbers, and location of squatters, on attitudes towards their relocation and on techniques of handling them.
On August 7, 1969, at the age of 73, James Cantley died, ... Some 56 years ago in the summer of 1913 ..., not yet out of his teens, ["Jim" Cantley] ... stepped ashore at Cartwright, Labrador, off the Pelican, the last of the Hudson's Bay Company's sailing ships. ... During his early years fur trading in Arctic Canada by small boats and dog teams he travelled extensively through the eastern Arctic. He carried out exploratory work on the east coast of Baffin Island in search of promising locations for Hudson's Bay Company trading posts. He established in 1914 the first post at Ward Inlet, Frobisher Bay, some 40 miles from the present site of the community, which has now become the main centre for the eastern Arctic. This was at a period when truly Arctic posts designed specifically to trade with the Eskimos for white foxes were being opened in the Arctic. ... In 1921 Jim Cantley was transferred south and appointed District Accountant and later Assistant District Manager of the Hudson's Bay Company's eastern operations with headquarters first at St. John's, Newfoundland and later at Montreal. In 1930 he moved to Winnipeg as Assistant Fur Trade Commissioneer and during the next eight years he made numerous trips throughout the Northwest Territories and the northern parts of all the provinces from coast to coast. He left the Hudson's Bay Company in 1938 and the following year organized and, for the next ten years, managed the Baffin Trading Company Limited which was engaged in trading and transportation in the eastern Arctic. In 1950 he joined the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development .... Part of his work was to carry out a survey of economic conditions in the Arctic. ... he retired from the Department in 1956. In 1957 he was appointed a Fellow of the Arctic Institute of North America and around that time he helped set up and was the Director of the Ottawa office of the Institute. With the closing of this office, Jim Cantley continued his association with the north in one way and another, corresponding with many people who were doing northern research. He also served the Arctic Circle Club for many years as one of the auditors.