Canada's most distinguished anthropologist, Dr. Diamond Jenness, formerly Chief of the Division of Anthropology, National Museums of Canada, and Honorary Associate of the Arctic Institute of North America, died peacefully at his home in the Gatineau Hills near Ottawa on 29 November, 1969. He was one of that rapidly-vanishing, virtually extinct kind - the all round anthropologist, who, working seriously, turned out first-class publications in all four major branches of the discipline: ethnology, linguistics, archaeology, and physical anthropology. One must also add a fifth: applied anthropology, a fitting designation for the series of monographs on Eskimo administration in Alaska, Canada, and Greenland which he wrote after his retirement and which were published by the Arctic Institute of North America. ... [In response to an invitation to join Stefansson Arctic Expedition and study Eskimos for three years, Jenness found himself a member of the Southern Party with an assignment to study the Copper Eskimos around Coronation Gulf. These plans were interrupted due to the presence of sea ice.] On 30 September, Stefansson, with his secretary Burt McConnell, Jenness, two Eskimos, and the expedition's photographer G.H. Wilkins (later Sir Hubert Wilkins), left the Karluk near the mouth of the Colville River to hunt caribou and lay in a supply of fresh meat when it had become apparent that the ship, immobilized in the ice, could proceed no further. With two sleds, twelve dogs and food for twelve days the party set out for the mainland, but they never saw the Karluk again, for a week or so later the unfortunate vessel began her final drift westward. This was the inauspicious beginning of Jenness' arctic career. Few young anthropologists have faced such difficulties in beginning field-work in a new and unfamiliar area; yet none, surely, has emerged from the test with a more brilliant record of work accomplished. ... Jenness' first winter's field-work on the Arctic coast of Alaska led to [an] impressive list of publications ... conducted under conditions that many an ethnographer would have found intolerable. ... Scarcely a hint of these personal experiences of his first winter in the Arctic will be found in Jenness' anthropological writings. They were reserved for his retrospective volume Dawn in Arctic Alaska (1957) which he wrote while on a Gugenheim scholarship in 1954, some years after his retirement. ... Jenness' first year in the Arctic ended in July 1914 when the Expedition's schooners left Camden Bay and sailed eastward to Dolphin and Union Strait where he was to meet with another though very different, Eskimo people named by Stefansson the Copper Eskimos, most of whom, before Stefansson worked among them in 1910-1911, had never seen a white man. ... To obtain a faithful picture of the life of the Copper Eskimos Jenness chose an approach that in those days was not often employed by ethnologists. He entered into their life directly, as one of them. He attached himself to an Eskimo family and became the adopted son of Ikpukhuak, one of the foremost hunters and respected leaders of the Puivlik tribe of southwest Victoria Island, and his wife Higilak (Ice House), who was not only proficient in the ordinary and burdensome duties of an Eskimo wife but was also a shaman in her own right, a talent that saved Jenness from a local murder charge. Jenness lived with these people in their snow houses in winter and skin tents in summer, observing and recording the vastly different modes of life according to season. ... Jenness' researches extended far beyond Coronation Gulf and the arctic coast westward. ... Jenness always disclaimed being an archaeologist, yet he made two discoveries that are fundamental to an understanding of Eskimo prehistory - discovery of the Dorset culture in the eastern Arctic, and of the Old Bering Sea, earliest stage of the maritime pattern of Eskimo culture that later spread from northern Alaska to Canada and Greenland to form the principal basis for modern Eskimo culture. ... And so much more. In 1926, Jenness succeeded Edward Sapir as Chief Anthropologist of the National Museum of Canada. ... He developed the Antiquities Legislation that has been so important for the protection of archaeological resources in the Northwest Territories. ... Between 1962 and 1968 the Arctic Institute of North America published his admirable five volumes on Eskimo administration in Alaska, Canada, and Greenland. These monographs reflect his durable and compassionate concern for Canadian Indians and Eskimos and in them one can find much of the advice that he, for so many decades, provided the Canadian Government. ... [Jenness' accomplishments extend beyond the realm of anthropology and his reputation was both national and international. For his services in the field of anthropology, particularly in connection with the Indian and Eskimo population of Canada, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of Canada.]
Presents data on the 308 Eskimos of Wainwright obtained in July-Aug 1968 by a team under auspices of the US International Biological Programme. The geneological data and reproductive histories taken from 47 women informants reveal high fecundity, twin-birth rate and infant mortality, also a marked differential survival of children: 20% were responsible for 47% of the living offspring. The group median age was 16.1 yr; 67 were hybrids. Mortality rates have declined with improved health care and hygenic measures. Recent introduction of birth control will make the birth rate, rather than survival, the determinant of genetic content of succeeding generations.
Étude démographique d'un village esquimau du versant nord de l'Alaska. En 1968, la population esquimaude de Wainwright présentait les caractéristiques démographiques suivantes : un nombre total de 308 individus (169 hommes, 139 femmes) dont l'âge médian était de 16.1 ans. Soixante-sept étaient métis. La fécondité était élevée : 7.9 conceptions pour toutes les femmes : 10.5 naissances vivantes pour 17 femmes post-ménopause. Le taux de naissances jumelles (27 pour mille) était de deux fois celui d'une population caucasienne. Le rapport des sexes à la naissance était biaisé (108.2/100). La mortalité infantile était élevée, car seulement 81 pour cent des enfants nés vivants survivaient jusqu'à l'âge de 5 ans, en comparaison avec un pourcentage de 97.3 aux E.-U. en 1959. On observait une survivance inégale marquée des enfants, car un cinquième des enfants était responsable de 47 pour cent des rejetons vivants. Les taux de mortalité ont décliné. L'introduction récente du contrôle des naissances fera qu'à l'avenir le taux de natalité, et non plus la survivance, sera déterminant du bagage génétique des prochaines générations.
Circulation of surface waters in parts of the Canadian arctic archipelago based on foraminiferal evidence
Arctic, v. 23, no. 2, June 1970, p. 100-111, figures, map, table
Contribution - Bedford Institute, no. 186
ASTIS record 10109
The distribution of planktonic foraminifera, collected 27 May-15 July 1968 from sea ice in McClure Strait, indicates a slow net eastward movement of water from the Arctic Ocean through the strait in the past with increased rates at present. The bottom topography, regional climatology and oceanography of the area are discussed.
La circulation des eaux de surface dans certaines parties de l'archipel arctique canadien, d'après l'étude des foraminifères. Dans la zone du plateau, d'une profondeur moyenne de 400 mètres, à l'Ouest d'une ligne tirée entre le cap de M'Clure et le cap de Meecham, les foraminifères planctoniques sont présents à la fois dans les sédiments du fond et dans les eaux de surface; mais à l'Est de cette ligne, dans le détroit de M'Clure proprement dit, on ne les trouve que dans les eaux de surface. Cet indice suggère, pour le passé, un mouvement net des eaux de l'océan ver l'Est, à travers le détroit de M'Clure, avec des taux accrus dans le présent.
Reports on the 1966 studies of breeding density, timing, chick growth and food habits of Stercorarius longicaudus near the northern margin of its extensive range (66 N on Hudson Bay to 83 N) where it is free of competition from the pomarine and parasitic jaegers. The great variation in breeding of the long-tailed jaeger is related to the lemming populations, which provide >90% of the jaeger's food; clutch size also appears to be adjusted to food supply. This small jaeger species adapts to the High Arctic with its efficient use of lemming highs which may not be very great and its use of insect prey, especially by the chicks. Fledging time is approx. three wk, one week less than the larger jaegers. Egg-laying dates vary widely between years and within populations. Juvenile birds, mainly snow buntings and shore birds make up most of the other vertebrate prey. A description of the Camp Hazen environment and a comparison of the long-tailed jaegers with north Alaska populations are included.
Écologie du Labbe à longue queue du lac Hazen, île d'Ellesmere. On a étudié en 1966 la densité de reproduction, la distribution chronologique, la croissance des poussins et les habitudes de nutrition d'une importante population de labbes à longue queue. De 1961 à 1966, la densité de reproduction a fluctué de 0 à 2 couples par mille carré (269 hectares), avec des sommets en 1962 et 1966. De 12 à 13 pour cent des œufs pondus en 1966 ont atteint l'éclosion, mais dans les 4 années creuses, seul un nid sur 7 était productif. Tous les indices suggèrent que dans les bonnes années, la "réussite" reproductive était très grande. Les dates de ponte varient beaucoup d'une année à l'autre et selon les groupes. La proportion des aliments dans les boulettes régurgitées - 242 fraîches et 710 anciennes - était respectivement de 90.1 et 94.0 pour cent de restes de lemmings. Pour les autres proies vertébrées (surtout des oiseaux), elle était de 18.6 et de 8.0 pour cent. Le plectrophane des neiges était l'oiseau le plus fréquent (79.5 et 72.5 pour cent), suivi des oiseaux de mer (9.1 et 21.6 pour cent). Chez les passereaux, le pourcentage d'oiseaux juvéniles était de 83 et 79.4, et chez les oiseaux de mer, il était de 75 et 91. Les insectes étaient présents dans 30 pour cent des boulettes fraîches.
Results of winter 1967-68 and 1968-69 measurements by radio-capsules implanted in two polar bears indicate that this species is capable of reducing circulatory activity in dormancy in the same way as the grizzly and black bear. Sleeping heart rates of initially 60 beats/min changed slowly week by week to 27/min.
Reports a radiocarbon date of 8400 ± 300 BP for a poplar log found 6 m below surface near the Sagavanirktok River and close to the Itkillik glaciation type area. This confirms the correlation of dates reported earlier by others in the Seward Peninsula, Pt Barrow and along the Anaktuvuk River, with a warm period between the Antler valley and Anivik Lake advances of the Itkillik glaciation.
Reports craniometric data for a well-preserved posterior portion of a mature bison skull incl the horn cores, which was found on the Liard River three mi above the Blackstone River mouth on the opposite shore in Mackenzie District. This is the most northerly recorded occurrence of Bison antiquus.
Reports 7 Mar - 20 Apr observations made by a physician and a high school geography teacher, members of a six-man nonscientific field party of the Plaisted Polar Expedition 1968, which traversed the pack ice from Ward Hunt Island to the geographic North Pole to be evacuated by air. Logistics, using four Bombardier Skidoo snowmobiles to tow 8-ft sleds, weather, and positioning are briefly described. The west wind was so constant that a northerly heading was maintained on overcast days by crossing tightly packed snow drifts or sastrugi at right angles. Surface features of three zones are described, a so-called shatter zone extending out about 25 mi where pack ice meets shelf ice; another with a highly variable surface, broad, old floes being the basic feature, separated by areas of extensive fragmentation; the third zone has an enormous lead at its southern limit and contains large-sized and old floes. These log-book notes give many details on pressure ridges, leads, floe sizes, orientation of upended ice fragments, etc.
Palynologists, students of paleolimnology and others interested in former ecological conditions may study cores of sediments deposited in present or now-dry lake basins. Undisturbed sequences are crucial to drawing correct inferences from sedimentary records. Recently Nichols called attention to the disruption of tundra pond sediments by blocks of ice floating from the basin bottom to the water surface. This note records the derangement of sediments in a small alpine lake; while the actual disturbance was not witnessed, this type of event may be of frequent occurrence in remote mountainous areas and go unnoticed. Among the lakes receiving limnological study in Rocky Mountain National Park is a small unnamed tarn at the head of Fern Creek, a tributary of the Big Thompson River ....