Reports the International Conference on Cross-Cultural Education in the North held in Montreal, 18-21 Aug 1969, with 150 specialists representing Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Norway, South America, Sweden, USA and USSR. Twenty reference background papers were circulated to participants and observers incl UNESCO before the conference. Educational programs for indigenous northern peoples have mainly failed to bring expected results. Various factors and future guidelines were discussed, the family, children, youth and adults and education, staff development, study courses and methods and technology. Some of the conclusions are summarized.
A complete glaciation of the highest peaks in this region, indicated by erratics on the top, is tenatively correlated with the Torngat glaciation, and a subsequent advance from interior Labrador, during which the highest peaks were nunataks, to the Koroksoak glaciation. The last deglaciation was basically a recession accompanying thinning of the interior Labrador ice sheet. In the Nain-Okak Bay region it occurred in four steps. Low lying areas were still occupied by isolated masses of stagnant ice when the eustatic sea-level rise began. The events leading to complete deglaciation are reconstructed mainly from the distribution of moraines, kame terraces and other ice contact and fluvioglacial features. In the absence of accurate C-14 dating, the chronology suggested is relative rather than absolute.
Déglaciation de la section centrale Nain-baie d'Okak, au Labrador. Sur les plus hauts sommets de la section Nain-baie d'Okak du Labrador, des erratiques glaciaires indiquent qu'à un certain moment, toute la région était entièrement recouverte de glace. On relie provisoirement cette glaciation à celle de Torngat. Une réavancée subséquente, venue de l'intérieur, au cours de laquelle les plus hauts sommets ont constitué des nunataks, semblerait correspondre à la glaciation de Koroksoak, car les systèmes morainiques des niveaux inférieurs sont apparemment ceux de la glaciation de Saglek et ses différentes phases. La déglaciation finale a consisté surtout en une récession accompagnée d'un amincissement de l'inlandsis intérieur, tandis qu'au début du relèvement eustatique du niveau de la mer, des masses de glace stagnante occupaient encore les régions les plus basses.
The collapse of solifluction lobes as a factor in vegetating blockfields
Arctic, v. 22, no. 4, Dec. 1969, p. 395-402, ill.
Icefield Ranges Research Project, scientific results, v. 2, 1970, p. 103-107, ill., map
ASTIS record 10092
In the Ruby Mt area of southwestern Yukon, tongues and islands of vegetation occur in certain blockfields, which through normal processes develop soil and vegetation only very slowly, due to a lack of near-surface water and great diurnal temperature extremes during summer. The collapse occurs when the lobes move from the meadow onto the steeper slope of the blockfield where composition of vegetation changes and where there is a deeper active layer. Once collapsed, they flow downslope transporting clumps of vegetation which may establish themselves along the mud-flow channel or levee. Thus certain arctic and alpine slopes are vegetated more quickly than would otherwise be possible.
L'effondrement de lobes de solifluxion, facteur de colonisation des champs de blocs par la végétation. Selon les processus normaux, le développement du sol et de la végétation dans les champs de blocs est très lent. C'est pourquoi, dans les monts Ruby, dans le sud-ouest du territoire du Yukon, on est surpris de trouver des langues et des îlots de végétation au milieu de certains champs de blocs. On propose comme mécanisme responsable de ce phénomène l'effondrement des lobes de solifluxion des pentes voisines. En passant de la pente douce de l'alpe à celle, plus forte, des champs de blocs, les lobes ne peuvent plus se maintenir à cause de cette pente plus prononcée, du changement de composition de la végétation et de l'épaisseur plus grande du mollisol. En s'effondrant, les lobes fluent le long de la pente, entraînant des masses de végétation qui s'établissent quelque part le long du chenal de coulée ou sur ses levées. De cette façon, de petits avant-postes de végétation se créent et accélèrent ainsi le processus qui, autrement, serait interminablement plus long.
The interior basin between the climatic divides of the Brooks and Alaska Ranges has extremely low winter temperatures in contrast to the milder regime of both southcentral Alaska and the region on the Arctic Slope of the Brooks Range. There is a cold pole centered on the Yukon flats and extending over the Yukon and Tanana valleys. Two local factors in the occurrence of low winter temperatures are the wide expanse of relatively flat and low-lying surface suited to the development of substantial low level temperature inversions in winter when the radiation balance of the surface is strongly negative; and encirclement by a mountain mass which is effective in preventing the weaker low level synoptic scale weather systems from invading the basin. Large-scale circulation factors associated with extreme years are described.
Aspects des températures hivernales en Alaska intérieur. L'auteur décrit les variations des températures mensuelles moyennes hivernales des vallées du Yukon et de la Tanana, en relation avec la topographie de la région. Il identifie les mois de froid extrême et de chaleur extrême à partir des observations recueillies en 66 ans. Pour ces mois extrêmes, les variations thermiques au jour le jour aux différentes stations révèlent l'influence des barrières topographiques sur les tendances au réchauffement. L'auteur décrit enfin les facteurs de circulation à grande échelle qui sont associés aux années extrêmes.
Reviews the laying, repair and maintenance of telegraph and cable systems, at one time 86 submarine cables, between Puget Sound and Alaska 1901-60. Failures due to entanglement by whales, bruising and mauling by anchors and fishing trawls and various destructive effects of geologic agents on the sea floor are noted. In straits on the continental shelf and upper continental slope, cable failures are attributed primarily to chafe by bottom currents and, off the mouths of major streams, to turbidity currents and gravitational slides. Cable repair data for 1903-58 are tabulated, showing reported causes. Some cables at depths of 1000-1500 fathoms on the continental margin cross at least 40 major canyons, but have never failed because of turbidity currents; this indicates a lapse of 2000, possibly 5000 yr since such currents occurred in this region.
Les câbles sous-marins en Alaska, une lutte contre un milieu difficile. À un moment donné, le système de communications de l'Alaska comprenait 86 câbles télégraphiques sous-marins, s'étendant du Puget Sound vers le nord à travers l'Alaska côtier, puis vers l'ouest jusqu'à l'arc des Aléoutiennes. Les pannes de ces câbles sont révélatrices des forces dynamiques naturelles qui affectent le fond des mers. Dans les détroits du plateau continental et de la partie supérieure du talus continental, les bris s'expliquent par le frottement dû aux courants profonds : à l'embouchure des grands cours d'eau, ils sont provoqués par les courants de turbidité et les glissements sous-marins.
Physical processes at the surface of the arctic tundra
Arctic, v. 22, no. 4, Dec. 1969, p. 425-437, ill., figures, tables
Contribution - University of Washington. Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences, no. 206
ASTIS record 10095
The results of measurements of net total radiation flux and temperatures in the air and surface layers of the tundra and snow near Barrow, Alaska, are presented for the period September 1965 to September 1966. Lowest average monthly temperatures occurred in March, the highest in July. The minimum average net total radiation occurred in January with the maximum in July. The tundra surface began to thaw by 18 June and to freeze by September.
Processus physiques à la surface de la toundra arctique. Les auteurs présentent les résultats de mesures du flux de rayonnement total net et des températures dans l'air et dans les niveaux de surface de la toundra et de la neige, près de Barrow, Alaska, pour la période de septembre 1965 à septembre 1966. Les températures mensuelles moyennes minimales se retrouvent en mars, les maximales en juillet. Le minimum de rayonnement total net moyen se produit en janvier, avec un maximum en juillet. La surface de la toundra commence à dégeler vers le 18 juin et à regeler en septembre.
Many different species of very young seal and sea lion pups are extremely friendly to man after they overcome their initial fear upon being captured. Sometimes this will require a matter of days but in other species, such as a few-days-old Steller sea lion pup, they will have lost all sense of fear within the first fifteen minutes after their capture. ... the walrus which has been hunted by the Eskimos for many years is the most naturally affectionate of all marine mammals. They weigh about one hundred and twenty pounds at birth and show almost no fear of man even up to a year of age in the wild. Very young walrus can be easily trained to nurse a special formula from a bottle and they require about a gallon of formula per day. ... Whereas the Weddell seal pup may rest its head upon your knee, the walrus is not satisfied unless it can climb all over you even after he gets up to fifteen hundred pounds or more. It therefore soon becomes unsafe to get into a pool with them because of the danger of being drowned, and out of water one may be pinned down so as to require help to get up, particularly if there is more than one walrus. If anyone sits down where there are two or three young walrus being raised by hand, they will all try to climb upon you at the same time. In the case of most marine mammals if any object such as a hydrophone is placed in their pool they completely ignore it, but the walrus is there almost immediately and has it in his mouth or is playing with it in his flippers. It is therefore difficult to obtain underwater recordings of them unless the hydrophone is placed in some inaccessible place. Even placing dummy hydrophones in the tank for a week ahead of time helps very little if they see the new hydrophone go in. If one throws a half gallon nursing bottle half full of formula into their pool, they will occasionally pick it up in their flippers, lie on their back and nurse from the bottle while holding it up over them with their flippers. Their baby-like whimper and low-pitch woof! woof! and their apparent desire for physical contact with human beings make them one of the most attractive of the marine mammals.
The name North Water was coined by 19th century whalers, who knew it only in the spring. The Eskimos of the Thule and Etah districts have known it as a winter phenomenon restricting sledge travel but offering good hunting conditions. The mean conditions for Mar-June can now be figured from air observations since 1954 and satellite pictures of 1966-68. The north limit is extremely stable: a fast-ice bridge in a convex curve across the narrow head of Smith Sound which persists to late July-Aug, when a general break- up occurs in Kane Basin. The southern boundary is extremely variable and often poorly defined. There are no observations of a freeze-up date of winter extent of North Water.
The ecosystem on the snout of Kushtaka Glacier, a branch of the Martin River Glacier about 60 mi ESE of Cordova has reached the developmental stage when spruce forest has almost eliminated the alder from the site. Mosses carpet the forest floor. A 55 ft spruce was found to be 65 yr old when felled. A profile through the 36-in soil layer on the ice is described. Similar brush and forest growth occurs on many glaciers in coastal Alaska. Superglacial vegetation on stagnant ice of the Wisconsin glaciation may have been the seed sources for much newly deglaciated land.
The spread and establishment of the starling (Sturnus vulgaris) in many parts of North America since its introduction into New York City in 1890 is well known. It was not until recently, however, that evidence for its northward spread on this continent was obtained; the first record of this species from the Northwest Territories, near Fort Smith, was reported by Fuller. Since that time starlings have repeatedly been seen in the Fort Smith and Yellowknife areas and on 16 June 1964 Kuyt found a nest at Lookout Point, about 225 miles northwest of Fort Reliance, Northwest Territories. Starlings were first reported in Alaska in 1960 and since that time several have been seen in interior Alaska. On 27 June 1968 I observed a starling feeding at the edge of a sewer lagoon, about one-half mile north of Inuvik, Northwest Territories (68°21'N., 133°44'W.). This bird was not seen again despite several subsequent trips in the vicinity of where the original observation was made. This appears to be the most northerly record of the starling in North America, being about 120 miles north of the Arctic Circle. This observation was made while I was employed on contract with the Canadian Wildlife Service.
An Interagency Arctic Research Coordinating Committee was established in 1968, with members from the departments of Agriculture, Air Force, Army, Commerce, Health, Education and Welfare, Interior, Transportation and Navy, also the Atomic Energy Commission, National Aeronautics and Space Administration and National Science Foundation. The Committee's function is to coordinate basic, unclassified research, promote cooperative use of available logistics among research groups, maintain a current survey of foreign arctic research, and to encourage international meetings and cooperative fieldwork, data exchange and research analysis.
... Since the age of fifteen Clyde Todd gave his life to the field of ornithology, a vocation he had chosen at even an earlier age as a small boy in a rural community of Western Pennsylvania. ... In 1899 his association with the Carnegie Museum of Pittsburgh began - one which lasted seventy years until his death in June 1969. Although retired in 1945 as Curator of Ornithology, Mr. Todd continued to work at the Museum, writing, studying, and classifying its vast collection of birds and their eggs. ... Although his study of birds in Western Pennsylvania occupied much of his life and led to the publication of his second outstanding work, The Birds of Western Pennsylvania, in 1940, it was the subarctic regions of eastern Canada to which he turned repeatedly and with ever increasing enthusiasm and interest. Carnegie Museum, over a period of nearly sixty years, sent twenty-five expeditions to the Labrador Peninsula and northeastern Ontario, on twenty of which Mr. Todd was a participant. The journeys were made, as he enjoyed saying, "the hard way" - that is, by canoe, sailing sloop, by sled, or afoot. The purpose of the many trips in which he participated, and others which he directed, was to map the range of birds in that vast area and to ascertain the character and extent of their natural life zones. The result of his observations and collections culminated in 1963 in the publication of his monumental work, The Birds of the Labrador Peninsula and Adjacent Areas, published by the University of Toronto Press in cooperation with Carnegie Museum, and with the generous help of grants from Mrs. Alan M. Scaife and Edward O'Neil, both of Pittsburgh. It was hailed as the finest bird book ever produced in Canada. More than eight hundred pages in length, this volume is descriptive of over three hundred species, illustrated with many photographs taken on various expeditions and with magnificent colour plates by Dr. George M. Sutton, who accompanied Mr. Todd on several of his journeys. ... Space does not permit a detailed account of Mr. Todd's many expeditions to Labrador and the northern parts of Ontario, each of which is well described in his book, but some deserve particular mention. Accompanied by Olaus J. Murie as his assistant, one other white man, and three Indian guides, Todd in 1917 traversed the Labrador Peninsula from Seven Islands to Fort Chimo, a three months' canoe trip through virtually unknown country. In 1926, accompanied by Dr. Sutton and John B. Semple, a Trustee of Carnegie Museum, a bird collecting expedition covered the East Coast of James and Hudson Bay, as far north as Cape Wolstenholme, a three months' trip. In 1939 Mr. Todd, then in his mid-sixties, and accompanied by Dr. J. Kenneth Doutt, Mammalogist of Carnegie Museum, and Mrs. Doutt as botanist, made the long journey up the Hamilton River to the Grand Falls (now Churchill Falls) of Labrador and beyond. Six years later at the age of seventy, Mr. Todd and Dr. Doutt, on a trip lasting from winter into the summer months, visited the northeast shore of Hudson Bay and attempted a traverse across the country, to be turned back, however, because of adverse weather conditions. Probably no other man knew the Labrador Peninsula as well as did he, not only its birds but in an understanding of the relationship of nature to man in that large and often desolate land which he loved so well, and to which he always referred as the "North Country". ... His contributions toward knowledge of the Labrador Peninsula and other areas of his beloved North Country have enriched us all.