... The Symposium was held in recognition of the construction and dedication of a new facility at the Naval Arctic Research laboratory at Barrow, Alaska. The Office of Naval Research undertook to support such a laboratory in 1947. In 1954, responsibility for the management and operation of the laboratory was undertaken by the University of Alaska .... The papers presented at the Symposium and published herein cover a spectrum of arctic research involving the terrestrial, the marine and the atmospheric sciences. I think that in these we see the responsibilities of my office being discharged by providing knowledge and, certainly at the laboratory, by applying that knowledge. We hope we are only on the first step of a major program of construction at Barrow so that we can continue to serve and give additional assistance to investigators who want so badly to do work in that very important region. ... I would like to express warm thanks to our host campus, the University of Alaska. We certainly appreciate the cooperation and support that this wonderful institution has given us over a period of years. ... I would like to thank The Arctic Institute of North America for the continuing interest it has had in working with the Office of Naval Research in the program of arctic environmental research, and more particularly for the excellent arrangements that were made in connection with this Symposium. I think that I can summarize my feelings by saying that it is a real privilege as Chief of Naval Research to participate in a cooperative program of arctic research in an environment that is so important to Alaska and to the nation with its benefits to our society, our economy and our national security.
The Laboratory, established in Aug 1947 by the US Office of Naval Research, itself not yet two years old, was started by seven men led by the first director, L. Irving at Barrow, Alaska at the main supply camp of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No.4, where exploration continued until 1953. The Arctic Institute and later the Univ of Alaska have been closely associated with the ARL. The key people in ONR and successive directors of the Lab are noted, the main interests and directions sketched. Some 1500 persons representing 86 universities in nine countries and many institutions have participated in research at the Laboratory; many US government agencies have used it as a project base.
Reviews advances since 1954 in knowledge of tropospheric and stratospheric circulations: in the former, the nature, distribution and effects of an arctic jet stream and arctic front; and in the stratosphere and mesosphere, the startling discovery of a powerful stratospheric ridge over or west of Alaska (No 63579), which deforms the stratospheric polar-night westerlies up to at least 55 km.
Since the Apr 1957 occupation of the first long-term US drifting station on sea ice, much has been learned about the properties of sea ice as a material. Properties of large, composite sheets of natural sea ice are still to be defined, however, because of the need for accurate knowledge of strength, roughness and albedo, among other parameters. In explanation of the ice cover, studies have been made of energy fluxes, radiative fluxes, albedos, wind and water flow profiles in boundary layers, air and ice temperature profiles and evaporation of condensation. There remain unresolved and complex questions concerning the circumstances under which the present ice cover could change.
Defines the ionsphere and describes its three horizontal layers or regions, distinguished by physical characteristics and ionization processes: as quiet D, E and F regions and as disturbed D, E and F regions when there is a disturbed sun (sunspot magma). Representative research techniques are characterized: all-sky camera, auroral spectroscopy, ionosonde, riometer, VHF forward scatter, auroral radar, whistlers, balloons and rockets. Some of the research problems are: the magnetospheric model, auroral theory, and the polar substorm. Programs needed include routine recording, a polar meridian net and experiments utilizing satellites and rockets, all of which can use support of the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory at Barrow, Alaska.
The support of drifting stations and other scientific work on the pack ice by the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory is basic for the US studies of the central Arctic Ocean. A synoptic picture of temperature/salinity variables is needed, as is information on spatial variations of the currents. During the summer 1967, the satellite navigation system gave fixes of Fletcher's Ice Island T-3, from which water motion at depths of 150, 500 and 1300 m was recorded. Results of analyses are graphically shown and discussed; the technique used to smooth the track, noted. The flow is similar in the three water masses; a long-term period variation in the record probably represents the T-3 motion; there is a marked oscillation of ~semidiurnal period which undoubtedly represents an inertial or semidiurnal tidal oscillation. Tracks of drifting stations during 20 yr define the Beaufort gyre circulation, the center of which, 80 W, 140 W, coincides with that of a mean atmospheric pressure anticyclone. West of 140 W, the dominant W and N drifts are segments in the Transpolar Drift Stream; east of 140 W, where drifts are mainly E to W, they are in the eastern Beaufort gyre. Ice drifts faster in the Transpolar Stream than along the Canadian Islands by about 1/2 nautical mi/day; a marked increase in speed occurs in summer or fall; the atmospheric pressure gradient variations agree qualitatively with the drift speed variations. Three experiments needed to solve the principal remaining problems are explained.
The modern phase of geophysical research began at Barrow in 1944 with exploration of Naval Petroleum Reserve No.4. The asymmetric sedimentary basin below the Arctic coastal plain was discovered and defined, using gravity, magnetic and seismic methods. A regional gravity survey, which revealed a large negative Bouguer anomaly over the Brooks Range, was extended seaward and indicated an extension of the Range beneath the Chukchi Sea to join with the Chukchi-Anadyr fold belt of Siberia. A marine geophysical program began on drifting station ARLIS II in 1961 and continued on T-3 ice island, to study configuration and sedimentation of the Arctic Basin floor drifting over the Lomonosov Ridge, Alpha Cordillera, Wrangel Abyssal Plain and Siberia Abyssal Plain. Experiments were run to measure seismic noise on the ocean floor, modified gravity waves were interpreted as ocean swell modified by the influence of the pack ice. Since 1963, using a precision depth recorder, soundings from T-3, other drifting stations and nuclear submarines form the basis for present concepts of Arctic Ocean shape and structure. The Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge is seismically active and along it sea-floor spreading is believed to be taking place at present. More geophysical data are needed to decide the merit of this concept.
In a basin with an ~10 million km˛ area, the number of sediment cores taken is of the magnitude of 1/10,000 km˛, and most cores are <4 m long, providing little more than a 1 or 1-1/2 MY record. Progress in study of >300 cores from the T-3 drift is outlined; procedures are noted, as is the good record of the most recent major reversal of the earth's magnetic field left in 2-1/2 m (or longer) cores and of more magnetic events in cores longer than 3 m; this provides a basis for magnetic stratigraphic correlations with other parts of the world and determination of sedimentation rates. Progress in moisture content measurements, gross mineralogy, carbonate content and texture of the sediments and study of foraminifera and ice-rafted debris in sediments are still tenuous; the only sustained trend noted was toward less sinistral coiling specimens at the tops of cores which has been interpreted as indicating an ice-covered Arctic during most of the Pleistocene.
Reviews the present state of knowledge of underwater sound obtained from experiments made on drifting stations, T-3, Arlis II, Polar Pack I and Charlie and USCG Northwind in the central Arctic Ocean. The permanent ice cover and the velocity structure strongly influence underwater sound. Ice movement generates background noise and scattering waves from the rough ice boundaries modify propagation, particularly at high frequencies. Drifting ice stations are ideal platforms for hydroacoustical research. What has been learned about propagation, background noise and reverberation and a research program for the future are discussed.
Analyzes critically Naval Arctic Research Laboratory studies of the continental shelf organisms, beginning 1948, and those of the deep basin plankton and bottom organisms, beginning 1952. Because of many factors, the scope of work has been limited and mainly devoted to inventory taking. What remains to be done is noted with specific suggestions for future development; systematics, microscopy, ecology and animal behavior, embryology and life cycles, physiology and biochemistry of marine forms, and study of marine fishes and mammals on the shelf are treated in turn.
Summarizes briefly the geologic setting and geomorphic features of the Brooks Range, Arctic Foothills and coastal plain, and reviews the Naval Arctic Research Lab-sponsored research in fields of geomorphology, oriented lakes, patterned ground, glacial geology, palynology, C-14 dating and shoreline, near-shore and shallow-water studies. Discussion of the status of geologic research and future role of NARL notes the large sums of money presently being spent on subsurface and geophysical research by oil companies, and suggests that NARL concentrate, rather, on studies of processes, the Pleistocene and the Precambrian.
Defines heat flow as the flux at the earth's solid surface of heat conducted from the interior; the heat-flow-unit (hfu) is on the order of 1-millionth calorie through each sq cm of the surface/sec, which is enough to melt a 4-mm layer of ice over the earth's surface/yr. Earth heat originates from radioactive decay of U, Th and K in the crust and mantle. Although land heat-flow measurements in the Arctic are too few for regional interpretation, those from Cape Thompson, Barrow and Cape Simpson, Northern Alaska are discussed and figured to show what they contribute to understanding of permafrost, climatic change and shoreline movements. Measuring thermal conductivity and gradient is much simpler in ocean basins than on land. Locations of such measurements are mapped, the results for the Alaskan quadrant in more detail. The sharp change in heat flow at the edge of the Alpha Cordillera, shown in a geothermal model, suggests that this feature is a huge accumulation of basalt, rather than mantle material or remnant of a foundering continent as previously postulated. Future Arctic heat flow studies are discussed.
The Naval Arctic Research Lab at Barrow has been the base for productive studies of sea ice and pipelines in permafrost. It can offer the engineer a chance to do his fieldwork in the Arctic to solve challenging problems of housing design and construction, structural and power requirements, routings and oil spill difficulties of ships operating through the Northwest Passage, and basic work on physical and chemical properties of sea ice and its significance to shipping.
Review physiological field research from 1881, citing the scientists and their studies. At the Naval Arctic Research Lab at Barrow there have been projects on blood analysis, nutritional data, energy and fat metabolism, temperature regulation, animal navigation, eye physiology, reproductive physiology of arctic and temperate zone animals, and measurement of time by animals. Techniques, such as the insertion of radio-capsules in bears and foxes, are illustrated and future research needs for data on man and animals discussed.
Traces the course of zoological, and related anthropological, physiological and health research by various explorers and scientists at Barrow, beginning with the First International Polar Year, 1881-83. The aid of Eskimo knowledge is cited. Bird and human migration through the Brooks Range and on the arctic slope, marine life, and facets of Eskimo adaptation have been studied. The contribution of the NARL to the background for the rapid social and economic development in arctic Alaska is stressed.
Considers the tundra, or terrestrial environment and animal ecology primarily, citing the prime role of the Naval Arctic Research Lab at Barrow since 1947, in making the North Arctic Slope and adjacent waters one of the best-known sectors of the Arctic. The International Biological Program includes analysis of ecosystems and human adaptability, which demand study in the Arctic, where tundra, a low temperature extreme among ecosystem-types on the land, has a special importance. Future work will require ecologists, physiologists, taxonomists, climatologists, geomorphologists, pediologists and others to understand the tundra habitat and its populations as a total system. The complexity is illustrated by a flow diagram for energy and nutrients in tundra ecosystems and of the energy cycle in the biosphere, with comments on specific problems. Little is known about decomposition processes or life cycles of insects upon which birds feed; more quantitative observation and measurement of vegetation, the base of the food web, is needed. Factors and strategies which influence diversity of animal species in the tundra are discussed. Need to deal with ecology of the normal tundra is crucial, for with discovery of oil in northern Alaska, there is a need to deal with a damaged tundra.
Reviews and develops a perspective of what is known about the structure, function, and adaptive strategy of arctic tundra ecosystems, with emphasis on plants, the primary biological producers of an ecosystem. The short-term change in plant arrays following disturbance of the natural assemblage, due to ecological succession, is poorly understood in the tundra. Distribution and migrations of tundra flora give insight into Pleistocene events and evolutionary strategies, one clue to which is frequently of polyploidy. Implicit in understanding tundra dynamics or vegetation associations is study of topographic microrelief, soils and thaw depths, as well as description of the flora. Progress is noted in knowledge of the structure and function of vegetation in arctic ecosystems: the morphological adaptation, carbohydrate cycle, chlorophyll content, physiologic processes in adaption to severe environments such as photosynthesis, respiration, light saturation, photoperiodic requirements and temperature tolerance.
Address to the closing session of the Dedication Symposium for the new laboratory, restating the Office of Naval Research policy re NARL, and noting current funding of just under $1-1/2 million, a ten-fold increase over the past decade. Specific contributions of the Lab to the Navy are cited: studies of ocean bottom topography, arctic radiation balance and its relation to engineering strength, and permafrost studies relative to rational engineering practices. A wide range of future programs dealing with mass and energy exchange between the Arctic and other oceans, various aspects of sea ice, under-ice acoustic propagation, environmental systems, atmospheric or terrestrial, pollution problems, and the protection of the tundra are suggested. Seven examples are given of current governmental action through councils, committees and commissions focusing on arctic programs.