The Institute founded in 1951 is an interdisciplinary research and teaching organization within the Graduate School of the Univ of Colorado at Boulder. Its current emphasis is on the earth, biological and atmospheric sciences. Its facilities, faculty and research activities are noted, also its quarterly journal, Arctic and Alpine Research, first issued Feb 1969.
Discusses observations made in Inuvik June-Oct 1966 as part of the Mackenzie Delta Research Project. The Delta natives find that the concentrated communities into which they are being relocated are transient-white oriented and dominated, lack connection with their former fishing-hunting-trapping economy. Indians, Eskimos, metis, northern-born whites and a few recently settled whites as a group have subordinate status to the transient whites who occupy the serviced area of Inuvik and maintain a separate socio-economic life style. The natives' difficulty of adjustment is attributed to their inherited culture with its values of indulgence and sharing, its derogation of conspicuous status-seeking, their habits of unscheduled work, independence, and general lack of job orientation resulting in absenteeism. The general frustration fosters heavy drinking at great social and economic cost, and the feeling of individual alienation. The economic and historical setting of the Delta region, population and age structure of its natives are dealt with, as are ethnic and life style factors in Inuvik. A town plan showing settlement patterns is included.
Styles de vie en conflit dans une ville du nord du Canada. Avec la rapide expansion des services gouvernementaux dans l'Arctique canadien, les fonctionnaires blancs en sont venus à dominer la vie politique et sociale des villes nouvelles du nord. En réaction à cette pression, les indigènes commencent à se considérer comme faisant partie d'une nouvelle catégorie de "nordistes". Beaucoup des problèmes que ces nordistes éprouvent à s'ajuster à la vie urbaine peuvent être retracés jusque dans les valeurs et les schèmes de comportement propres à leur ancienne vie de trappeurs. La situation se complique encore par la stratification sociale à laquelle contribuent les patterns d'établissement. De tels groupements humains auront une importance cruciale pour l'avenir politique des Territoires du Nord-Ouest.
Two continental glaciations, both considered Wisconsin in age have been noted in the eastern Mealy Mountains. The earlier ice sheet reached a minimum elevation of 3,000 feet (925 m.) and may have overtopped the summit plateaus of 4,000 feet (1,240 m.). The ice moved from west to east. The vertical limit of the later ice sheet varied from 2,300 feet (710 m.) in the west to 1,800 feet (555 m.) in the east. Cirques were carved prior to both glaciations. The development of active glaciers with pronounced end moraines, subsequent to the second and later glaciation, was restricted to cirques oriented towards the east and southeast. Cirque glacier re-advances have probably not occurred within the last few hundred years.
Histoire glaciaire des monts Mealy orientaux, Labrador méridional. Dans les monts Mealy orientaux, on a distingué deux glaciations continentales, toutes deux considérées comme d'âge wisconsinien. La plus ancienne calotte atteignait une altitude minimale de 3000 pieds (925 m) et a peut-être recouvert les plateaux sommitaux de 4000 pieds (1240 m) d'altitude. La glace se déplaçait d'ouest en est. La limite verticale de la calotte plus récente variait de 2300 pieds (710 m) dans l'ouest à 1800 pieds (555 m) dans l'est. Des cirques ont été creusés antérieurement aux deux glaciations. Postérieurement à celles-ci, le développement de glaciers actifs à moraines terminales prononcées s'est limité aux cirques orientés vers l'est et le sud-est. Aucune réavancée de glacier de cirque ne s'est probablement produite au cours des derniers siècles.
Snowdrift studies made 1962-67 around an unprotected building and clusters of buildings at the US Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory camp on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, show that surface camps eventually become snow covered. Drift control measures to increase the usefulness and life of such camps are: 1) orient the buildings 45 degrees to the summer storm wind with the long axis parallel to the winter storm wind where these directions 45 degrees apart, where not, approach this arrangement as closely as possible; 2) place buildings far enough apart to avoid coalescence of drift (25 times the height); 3) treat equipment and material as a separate line of buildings for the same reason; 4) erect buildings on mobile foundations to move them easily when drift becomes a problem; 5) leave enough room for easy clearing of snow (60 ft needed by sizes 4 or 8 snow tractor). Small camps should be elevated on snow platforms when 5000 cu yd or less of snow are required; platform to be ~4 ft above snow surface for a 2-yr life in a region with snow accumulation of 1 ft or less/yr (the greater the accumulation the higher the platform). Because drift increases downwind of such an area, other buildings or supplies must not be closer than 10-30 times the height of the obstruction downwind (length of drift is at least 10 times the height of obstruction).
Mouvement de la neige et maîtrise des amoncellements dans les campements de surface. Dans les régions polaires, le mouvement de la neige pose des problèmes aux campements de surface, surtout dans les zones d'accumulation nivale annuelle nette. Pendant quatre ans, on a mené des études sur les amoncellements de neige autour d'un bâtiment isolé et non protégé et autour d'un groupe de bâtiments, dans une zone d'accumulation nivale annuelle nette, sur la barrière de Ross, près de la base de McMurdo en Antarctique : ces études ont démontré que les campements de surface sont éventuellement recouverts par la neige amoncelée. Cependant, on peut faire appel à certaines techniques de maîtrise des amoncellements et prolonger ainsi l'utilité et la vie de ces campements. Parmi les mesures mises au point, mentionnons l'orientation correcte des bâtiments et un tracé du campement en rapport avec les principaux vents de tempête. De plus, on peut munir les bâtiments de fondations mobiles, ce qui facilite les déménagements lorsque l'accumulation de neige devient excessive.
On the relationship of weight, length and girth of the ringed seal (Pusa hispida) of the Canadian Arctic
Arctic, v. 22, no. 2, June 1969, p. 120-129, figures, tables
ASTIS record 10067
Analyzes the relationships between the standard length, max girth, axillary girth and blubber thickness of 73 ringed seals, 71 of them taken at Sachs Harbour, Aug-Sept 1966. Data for the 61 seals from SW Baffin Island first studied by MacLaren, No 53026, are reanalyzed to determine which relationships give the most reliable prediction of weight. A formula using length and max girth as factors is the most precise, and the best single indicator is girth. Tables showing the relationship between weight, length and girth, as derived from two of the six formulas presented are given supra.
Rapports entre le poids, la longueur et la circonférence du phoque annelé (Pusa hispida) de l'Arctique canadien. On analyse les rapports entre plusieurs mesures du corps chez le phoque annelé, de façon à déterminer lesquelles de ces mesures permettent de déduire le poids de l'animal. La formule qui relie les deux paramètres longueur et circonférence maximale est la plus précise, alors que la circonférence est le meilleur indice isolé.
Studies on actinomycetes from soils of Baffin Island
Arctic, v. 22, no. 2, June 1969, p. 130-139, figure, tables
Contribution - Canada. Cell Biology Research Institute, no. 637
ASTIS record 10068
Investigations were made of the abundance and relative incidence of different types of actinomycetes in soil samples from Baffin Island, Northwest Territories. Numbers were relatively low in all samples examined, and no specific group predominated. Cultures grown at 26°C. showed greater metabolic activity than when grown at 10°C., and isolates from different soils varied in degree of activity. Ammonium nitrogen proved to be the best nitrogen source. A comparatively wide range of carbon compounds was utilized; glucose, fructose, mannitol, raffinose and sucrose were the best sources. Moderate growth of a large number of isolates was also obtained with acetate, fumarate, pyruvate and succinate. With one exception the incidence of actinomycetes antagonistic toward bacteria, yeasts and fungi was remarkably high in the soils studied. The samples did, however, differ in proportion of antagonistic types.
Études sur les actinomycètes des sols de l'île de Baffin. On a mené des enquêtes sur l'abondance et l'incidence relative des différents types d'actinomycètes dans des échantillons de sols de l'île de Baffin, Territoires du Nord-Ouest. Tous les échantillons examinés ont donné des comptages relativement bas et aucun groupe spécifique ne dominait. Les cultures venues à 26ºC montraient une plus grande activité métabolique que celles venues à 10ºC, et des isolats de sols différents avaient des degrés d'activité variables. L'azote de l'ammonium s'est révélé être la meilleure source de cet élément. On a utilisé une gamme étendue de composés carbonés : glucose, fructose, mannitol, raffinose et sucrose étaient les meilleures sources de carbone. On a aussi obtenu avec l'acétate, le fumarate, le pyruvate et le succinate une croissance modérée d'un grand nombre d'isolats. À une exception près, l'incidence des actinomycètes antagonistes des bactéries, levures et champignons était remarquablement élevée. Cependant, ces échantillons différaient entre eux dans leurs proportions de types antagonistes.
Deals with the systematic errors in climatic data produced by short-period and intermittent records, positioning of isolines on small-scale maps, a station network with only 23 permanent, mostly coastal stations for a 1,450,000 sq km area, imperfect instruments and sampling techniques, and observational and recording errors, all of which apply to the Labrador-Ungava region. Indirect methods for adjusting precipation gage data: snow surveying, stream gaging, interception and evapotranspiration calculations and watershed rain gage networks, are discussed. The results, which necessarily are only speculative, suggest a systematic annual error of 6 in.
Les précipitations dans le nord du Québec et au Labrador : évaluation des techniques de mesure. La vérification, au moyen de techniques hydrologiques, des cartes publiées de hauteur moyenne des précipitations pour une région continentale subarctique révèle une erreur annuelle systématique de 6 pouces (152 mm). L'analyse a une portée subcontinentale, mais on utilise les valeurs d'une station climatologique centrale pour éclairer les techniques indirectes servant au rajustement des données pluviométriques. Ces méthodes comprennent les mesures d'épaisseur du manteau nival et des débits fluviaux, le calcul de l'interception et de l'évapotranspiration, et l'établissement de réseaux pluviométriques de bassin. Tous les paramètres hydrologiques se caractérisent par des erreurs inhérentes de mesure et par de courtes séries de données. Conséquemment, les résultats de cette enquête doivent être considérés comme spéculatifs.
Replies in some detail to statements of Einar Haugen, No 95980, on Kejlbo's view of Clavus as a possible source of the Vinland map, No 91829.
Obsidian samples from archaeological sites in northwestern Alaska : a preliminary report
Arctic, v. 22, no. 2, June 1969, p. 152-156, tables
ASTIS record 10071
Reports the Na and Mn contents and Na/Mn ratios, determined by neutron activation analyses of 103 obsidian samples from the Onion Portage and nine related archeological sites. The occurrence and stratigraphic distribution are noted of four groups of obsidian distinguished by Mn content and Na/Mn ratio. Group B, the largest, appears in a complex with an age of 4000-3900 BC and in another of 1000-1700 AD, group A in complexes dating at 2600-2200 and 1500-500 BC, group C occurs 2200-1800 BC; and group D 400-1700 AD. There are at least four obsidian sources represented whose geographic locations are unknown.
This small trapping area, ~10 mi south of Great Slave Lake had a population of 130 in 1956, and about 38 in 1968. The local potential resource industries include commercial fishing, hunting and trapping, and the soil and climate are conductive to garden agriculture; but for their development the community requires a school to attract families with children, new housing, sanitation facilities, road improvement, a landing strip, also improved communications as it has only one radio-telephone at present.
Four field parties, studying glaciology, botany and ornithology, used the Arctic Institute's facilities on Devon Island during the summer of 1968. The botanical and ornithological studies were carried out from the Base Camp near Cape Sparbo, while the glaciological work was pursued from field camps on the ice cap and the Sverdrup Glacier. ...
During the summer field season of 1968, some 70 scientists and their assistants participated in the Icefield Ranges Research Project and its associated High Mountain Environment Project. An additional 15 persons were involved in logistic or operational programs. Six full-time field stations were operated during the summer: Kluane Base Camp, Divide Station, Mount Logan, Fox Glacier, Gladstone, and Chitistone Pass. Short-term stations were also maintained at the Kaskawulsh terminus, Slims' Tundra, Donjek River, White River, Steele Glacier, Fredrika Glacier, and Glacier Creek. ...
Under sponsorship of the U.S. Army Research Office, Durham, the Arctic Institute's High Mountain Environment Project continued research activities for the second year in the St. Elias and Wrangell Mountains, Yukon and Alaska. Twenty-three investigators and their assistants maintained a three-phase program from May to August 1968. ...
In the tragic death at the age of thirty-seven of Don Foote, the Institute has lost one of its more recent active Fellows, the polar world has lost a vital force in geographical research, and his friends have lost a well-loved man. One is agonised by the stroke of fate which permits a man to live life dangerously in the Arctic, travelling by dog team, tossing in small boats, walking through sub-zero blizzards, and then allows him to be struck down by that modern civilised killer, the automobile. ... Don was a product of Dartmouth College, which above all institutions in the United States has given so much to northern enterprise, including the first Executive Director of the Institute, and many subsequent Governors and Fellows. From there, we know, come not only well-trained and intelligent graduates, such as other American Universities produce, but above all real men. Don was such a man, powerful physically, a well-rounded human person, a leader who led by his personality rather than by his intellectual status which was indeed high. His early research work, stimulated by Dr. Trevor Lloyd, was in far northern Europe. He was a Summer Scholar at the University of Oslo and spent two further years travelling and working in high subarctic Scandinavia and Spitsbergen. Then he came to McGill University, where as a student taking higher degrees, and later as a member of staff, he spent the best part of ten years, and became, despite his youth, the doyen of arctic studies in the field of Human Geography. During this time his areas of research lay in Alaska and later Baffin Island. In Alaska his prime concern was with the economic base of the Eskimo hunter, caribou, whales, bears and seals. As a dedicated conservationist he was appointed in 1966 by the Canadian Government to head an Area Economic Survey of Baffin Island, and two years later under the International Biological Programme to study the 'adaptability' of the Igloolik people. Then came a sabbatical leave to join the University of Alaska's social research programme; an assignment tragically cut short. We at McGill University had missed him badly during his absence, and were looking forward to his return in 1969 to rejuvenate, as he could so well do, the basic elementary course in geography. In these days of sometimes difficult student-staff relationships Don, with his immensely sympathetic personality, was a force for mutual respect and a generator of enthusiasm. The Fellows of the Arctic Institute offer their profound sympathy to his artist wife Berit and their young son, whose father was such a fine and friendly man.