Suggests that the accuracy of Greenland and Vinland contours can be explained in the existence of a distinct Greenlandic tradition which was entirely unaffected by the Icelandic accounts; that Eric Gnupson, Bishop of Greenland, or one of his Greenlandic informants supplied the information.
A study of Late-Quaternary plant-bearing beds in north-central Baffin Island, Canada
Arctic, v. 19, no. 4, Dec. 1966, p. 296-318, ill., figures, tables
ASTIS record 9997
Plant-bearing beds, exposed by downcutting of the Isortoq River at the northern end of the Barnes Icecap, have been folded, apparently by east-west moving overriding ice, truncated and overlain by horizontal alluvial sediments. Radiocarbon dates for plant material from the Isortoq River (folded unit), Flitaway Lake, and Lewis Glacier localities are >30,000 to >40,000 yr BP, from the horizontal beds, 14,000 ± 400 yr BP. The vegetation was probably similar to that of southern Baffin Island today; the Isortoq beds are assigned to the Sangamon interglacial. Pollen diagrams and description of the present vegetation and climate are included.
Étude des dépôts végétaux fini-quaternaires dans le centre-nord de l'île de Baffin, Canada. On a daté à plus de 38,830 et 40,000 ans av. p. respectivement des horizons végétaux enfouis le long de la rivière Isortoq, à l'extrémité nord de la calotte de Barnes, sur l'île de Baffin. Des études palynologique et paléobotanique indiquent la présence d'espèces (comme le bouleau nain) qui se retrouvent aujourd'hui à plusieurs centaines de kilomètres au sud de cette localité. En déduisant des conditions climatiques plus favorables qu'à présent, on assigne à ces horizons un âge interglaciaire (Sangamon). Le plissement des horizons par de la glace de recouvrement et l'orientation de ces plis indiquent que l'accumulation d'une calotte initiale s'est produite à l'est de la localité.
Eskimos in this area take about 83 thousand geese and brant, 38 thousand ducks, 5500 swans and 1 thousand cranes annually; 40 thousand eggs are gathered for food. Egg gathering and village drives of birds have decreased in recent years, but spring hunting of waterfowl continues to be important as it coincides with the period of the Eskimos' greatest need for food.
Les Oiseaux aquatiques dans l'économie des Esquimaux du Delta du Yukon et du Kuskokwim, Alaska. Chaque année, les Esquimaux du delta du Yukon et du Kuskokwim tuent environ 83,000 oies et bernaches, 38,000 canards, environ 5,500 cygnes et 1,000 grues et récoltent 40,000 œufs pour la nourriture. Les collectes d'œufs et la chasse aux oiseaux aquatiques au printemps continue d'être importante, car elle coïncide avec la période des plus grands besoins alimentaires des Esquimaux.
Ward Hunt Island is surrounded by more than 2000 sq km of ice shelf. In 1964 and 1965 the University of New Brunswick Department of Surveying Engineering made a survey of the ice shelf in which geodimeter distance measurements and angular theodolite measurements were combined in a system of triangulation-trilateration in the form of a chain of quadrilaterals to achieve relative positioning accuracies of ± 2 cm for the survey markers. Shelf ice movements of 30 cm with respect to solid ground occurred between 1964 and 1965. The relative position change between the markers on shelf ice was < 4 cm.
Études des mouvements de la glace de la barrière de Ward Hunt, au moyen de la triangulation et de la trilatéralisation. Les auteurs décrivent une méthode par laquelle ils ont établi des mesures précises des mouvements de la glace sur la barrière de l'île de Ward Hunt. Ils ont combiné des mesures de distance au géodimètre et des mesures angulaires au théodolite en un système de triangulation et de trilatéralisation, sous forme d'une chaîne de tétragones, avec une précision de l'ordre ±1 à 2 cm. dans la localisation relative des repères forés dans la glace de la barrière. Entre 1964 et 1965, on a observé des mouvements de 30 cm. de la glace par rapport à la terre ferme. Les déplacements des repères sur la glace ont été inférieurs à 4 cm. Il s'agit de la première utilisation connue du géodimètre dans l'Arctique.
An alternating sequence of black silt and clay units, coarse sand and gravel units, occurs to depths of 30 ft below sea level in sediments underlying the Esatkuat Lagoon, directly northeast of the village of Barrow, Alaska. These beds represent one of the changing strandline environments which produced the Gubik formation (Pleistocene) of northern Alaska. A radiocarbon date at the base of the sequence indicates that these conditions first occurred 6450 yr BP. The silt-clay units were deposited under anaerobic conditions while a gravel bar separated the estuary from the ocean. The sand-gravel units resulted from destruction and spreading of the gravel bar inland under marine conditions.
Paléoécologie d'un estuaire arctique. On a trouvé, dans les sédiments tapissant un estuaire arctique, une séquence alternée d'horizons de limon noir et d'argile et d'horizons de sable grossier et de gravier, s'étageant jusqu'à une profondeur de 30 pieds (9.14 m.) sous le niveau de la mer. Le limon et l'argile contiennent des tests de foraminifères et se sont déposés en milieu anaérobie, au moment où une flèche de gravier accumulée en travers de l'embouchure isolait l'estuaire de l'océan. Le sable et le gravier contiennent des fragments de pélécypodes et résultent de la destruction et de l'étalement de cette flèche en milieu marin. Une datation au radiocarbone, au bas de la séquence, indique que ces conditions sont apparues il y a 6,450 ans.
Skeldal is a northeast-trending valley in the Mesters Vig district, on the southwest shore of Kong Oscars Fjord, about 70 km from the fiord's entrance, in the northeast corner of Scoresby Land. Thirteen radiocarbon dates of shell material which were used to establish a rate of emergence in Skeldal, indicate that the valley was partially open to the sea by ca 8500 BP. Early emergence (8000-7000 BP) was approx 3 m/century. Emergence is related almost entirely to adjustment due to glacial unloading.
Gauchissement postglaciaire à Skeldal, nord-est du Groënland. Treize spécimens du matériaux conchologiques, recueillis à Skeldal, district de Mesters Vig, au nord-est du Groënland, ont été datés par la méthode du radiocarbone et ont permis d'établir la vitesse d'émergence tout au cours du gauchissement. Les dates indiquent Skeldal était partiellement exposé à la mer c 8,500 av. p. Au début (8,000-7,000 av. p.) l'émergence était environ de 3 m. par siècle. L'émergence dépend presque entièrement du règlement isostatique causé par la décharge glaciale.
The Learned Societies of Canada, including the Royal Society of Canada and the Canadian Political Science Association, come together each year to hold their separate annual sessions. This affords an excellent opportunity for intersociety communication, of both personal and professional value to members, and a wider consideration of current problems than would otherwise be possible. It was therefore of particular interest to the Arctic Institute that, at the suggestion of a senior member of the Institute staff, the Canadian Political Science Association included the subject "Government in the North" on its agenda for the 1966 meetings which were held at the University of Sherbrooke in the Province of Quebec. The main speakers at the two-hour session were Dr. Morris Zaslow of the Department of History, University of Western Ontario, and Dr. Trevor Lloyd, Geography Department, McGill University. ...
A Who's Who-type biographical sketch of J. J. O'Neill might read as follows: O'Neill, John Johnston, born Port Colborne, Ontario, Canada, 12 November 1886, died Ottawa, Ontario, 1 June 1966; son of Thomas John and Mary Jane (Henderson) O'Neill. B.Sc. McGill University 1909; Ph.D. Yale University 1912. Married Lillian Mary Campbell, 9 December 1918. Children: Gordon Campbell, killed in action in World War II, and Melville Henderson. Geologist, Canadian Arctic Expedition, 1913-16; geological staff, Geological Survey of Canada, 1914-20; assistant professor of geology, McGill University, 1921-27; associate professor 1927-29; Sir William Dawson Professor of Geology and Head, Department of Geology, 1929-52; Dean of Science, 1935-39; Dean of Graduate Studies and Research, 1938-42; Dean of Engineering, 1942-52; Vice-Principal, McGill University, 1948-52; President, Royal Society of Canada, 1950-51; a Founder, Governor, and Board Chairman Arctic Institute of North America; Fellow, Arctic Institute of North America, Geological Society of America, Royal Society of Canada; Sigma Xi; Freemason; Conservative; Anglican. Club: Faculty (McGill). However detailed, such a sketch would give only an incomplete glimpse of a highly accomplished man who could be stern and awesome, yet kindly and informal, adventurous yet conservative, critical yet forgiving - in short, a whole man. It may be difficult for some who knew O'Neill as an administrator rather than as a young field geologist to visualize him as an adventurous person in addition to one who took a judicious and studious approach to problems. Yet in 1913 when he joined the Canadian Arctic Expedition in his late twenties he took a leading part in almost as venturesome an enterprise as a trip to the Moon would be today. The measure of the man is illustrated by the fact that although he and Vilhjalmur Stefansson, leader of the expedition, found themselves in opposing camps following strong expedition disagreements, O'Neill voluntarily, and at the expense of possibly handicapping his own work, gave his personal chronometer to Stefansson - an act that saved the latter's exploration program. O'Neill was the first geologist to study the mainland coast of Arctic Canada from Darnley Bay to Bathurst Inlet, a coastline distance of some 600 miles. The resulting publications indicated the bright future that lay ahead of him - Vice-Principal of McGill University, President of the Royal Society of Canada, and many additional honors about which others will write more appropriately than I. When I first met Dean O'Neill in 1938 to seek his aid in connection with further geologic research in the region he had studied, his friendliness and helpful advice made a great impression on me. Later, after World War II, as a Founder and Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Arctic Institute of North America, he continued to provide excellent counsel and generous assistance during the early critical days of the Institute, when his wisdom helped to assure the organization's future. When O'Neill and Stefansson became fellow Board members, the differences that had developed during the Canadian Arctic Expedition still lingered, and it is a credit to both that when they met at an Institute Board meeting in Montreal, they shook hands for the first time in some thirty years and worked harmoniously together for the Institute. It takes great men to do this and O'Neill was such. John Johnston O'Neill was in a unique position to contribute to the Arctic Institute of North America and he did so most effectively. He contributed significantly to science, to international cooperation in science, and in the broader context to mutual understanding and respect between nations.
Among his many distinguished accomplishments, General McNaughton was President of the National Research Council of Canada, commanded the First Canadian Army during the Second World War, was Head of the Canadian Delegation to the United Nations, and for many years was Chairman of the Canadian Section of both the International Joint Commission and the Permanent Joint Board on Defence. In all of these great responsibilities General McNaughton devoted his talents to world-wide, North American, and Canadian affairs selflessly and with great skill. He fought many battles objectively and zealously, and always remained highly regarded and respected. None questioned his sincerity and purpose; whether for or against his point of view, all remained his friends and admirers. General McNaughton's comprehension and concern about the North and its development was no less than his concern for scientific, military, and other North American problems. He travelled the North widely, particularly in his capacity as Chairman of the Canadian Section of the Permanent Joint Board on Defence. He has contributed much to the North and always was a firm supporter of the Arctic Institute. It was a privilege to know this truly great Canadian. His death is a loss not only to his family, to his friends, and to his country, but to the modern world in which altruistic service is so rarely pursued with such great intelligence and insight.