Observations of Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in northern Manitoba and R.t. groenlandicus-granti intergrades in northwest Alaska, show the brow-tine functioning as a protection to the buck caribou's eyes during antler-threshing, also in the forest-tundra region against the stiff twigs of willows. Elsewhere in the arctic and subarctic, the brow-tine sometimes does not develop. The brow-tine is not fully developed until the buck's fourth or fifth year, which marks the onset of the buck's breeding activity.
A willow thicket dominated by Salix planifolia and S. alaxensis, is located in a 1500-ft-deep glaciated valley at the southwest end of Watts Lake, 32 mi south of Deception Bay. This "forest" forms a solid green canopy at 12 ft and contains some trees of almost 16 ft height. It grows in deep, well-drained soils (here named arctic thicket type) developed on poorly sorted sand, gravel, pebbles and cobbles, mainly of schist. A flora of 67 species of vascular plants (here listed) have been found in the area, all but two of which are arctic species. The two exceptions are wide-ranging boreal and subarctic species. For so many arctic species to be capable of growing in the shaded environment is of interest. Factors contributing to the existence of such "forests", temperatures, moisture, deep permafrost, snow cover, wind and topography affording protection, are discussed.
Une "Forêt arctique" dans la toundra du nord de l'Ungava, Province de Québec. On a découvert, dans une vallée fluviale, à 32 milles au sud-est de la baie Déception (61°31'N. 74°5'O.) dans le nord de l'Ungava, un vaste peuplement de saules en taillis comprenant du Salix de taille arborescente. Ce peuplement semblait suffisamment rare pour justifier une étude. Des recherches écologiques déterminèrent les facteurs de composition et de milieu. Les auteurs examinent le développement et la persistance de ce peuplement par rapport au climat actuel et à l'état présent des connaissances sur l'histoire glaciaire de la région.
Describes soils near Umiat, Alaska: the gilgai microrelief, sparse vegetation, and the desiccation cracks of considerable depth and width underlying a surface mulch of mineral soil aggregates. At depth, the soils grade into a thick structureless viscous clay which overlies permafrost. The formation of this soil involves processes which operate where soil materials are high in expanding lattice clays of the montmorillonite group. Freezing and evaporation cause desiccation. Thus the genesis of this arctic soil is almost identical with that of grumosols of temperate and warm climates. Soil profiles and tabulated chemical and physical data are included.
Un Équivalent arctique du Grumusol. Il existe dans le nord de l'Alaska un équivalent arctique du grumusol. Riche en montmorillonites, il présente un micro-relief en "gilgai" et une surface minérale plutôt dure. Si l'on considère que le gel est essentiellement un processus de dessication qui agit au moins une fois par an dans ces sites, où l'évaporation est plus importante que la précipitation, la genèse de ce sol paraît semblable à celle des grumusols des climats chauds et tempérés. Les auteurs présentent des données chimiques et physiques.
Aedes impiger and A. nigripes, near Lake Hazen, were observed to take blood from musk-oxen, birds(mainly the eider ducks), and man. Precipitin tests showed several specimens contained blood of two kinds. The reaction of the host to harassment by mosquitos appears to determine which hosts are fed on successfully.
Les Hôtes naturels des moustiques dans le nord de l'île d'Ellesmere. Près du lac Hazen, T. du N.-O. (81°49'N., 71°18'O.), les auteurs ont effectué des observations sur l'alimentation en sang et des tests à la précipitine sur des femelles gorgées d'Aedes impiger et A. nigripes. On donne une liste des vertébrés terrestres mentionnés pour la région. Dans la nature, les deux espèces de moustiques soutirent du sang des bœufs musqués et des oiseaux (également des humains); plusieurs spécimens contiennent du sang des deux espèces (déterminations par les tests à la précipitine). La réaction de l'hôte au harassement par les moustiques est évidemment le facteur majeur qui détermine lequel des hôtes possibles sera attaqué avec succès. D'après leur comportement et leur situation, on estime que les bœufs musqués et les oiseaux nichés dans des sites aquatiques sont les plus susceptibles de fournir du sang. Les auteurs discutent brièvement des méthodes servant à déterminer les préférences envers les hôtes dans l'Arctique.
Topography of this area results from erosion and mass wasting of a permafrost terrain, low temperature processes such as thermal expansion and contraction of frozen ground, surface uplift caused by accumulation of, and subsistence resulting from thaw of ground ice. High- and low-centered polygons, ice-wedge troughs, ice-core mounds and thaw basins are features in this region; genetic relations between these are discussed.
Traits de relief de la toundra près de Point Barrow, Alaska. La distribution des traits mineurs du relief de la toundra démontre que la topographie joue un rôle majeur dans leur développement. Dans de grandes zones de relief très faible, l'expression locale dépasse souvent la portée régionale. Abstraction faite du relief initial, les plus grandes déviations de la surface plane dans la région de Barrow sont liées à la croissance ou à la fonte de la glace dans le sol. Ce qui donne des traits comme les polygones à centre soulevé ou en creux, les fentes de coins de glace, les monticules à noyau de glace et des cuvettes de fonte de toutes dimensions. On a pu déterminer la genèse de la plupart de ces traits. Cependant, on a mis en doute la formation des cuvettes par la fonte. La cueillette et l'analyse de spécimens de sol gelé ont permis de déterminer leur teneur relative en glace. Ces valeurs extrapolées ont démontré que même les plus grandes cuvettes peuvent être d'origine thermokarstique.
Describes the effect of a severe wind and rain storm, 8 July 1965, on passerine bird nestlings in this area. Mortality from exposure was high: there was little evidence of starvation. The weather did not effect nests with eggs only. Non-passerine species appeared largely unaffected by the storm. The altricial condition of passerine young may account for paucity of arctic passerine species.
Effets du temps sur la reproduction des oiseaux à Churchill, Manitoba. Les auteurs étudient les effets d'un vent violent et d'une forte pluie d'orage du début juillet 1965 sur les nichées d'oiseaux de la région de Churchill, Manitoba, et le rôle, peut-être déterminant, du temps dans la composition de l'avifaune arctique.
Production models of the Angirraq hut, developed for the Department of Northern Affairs and National Resources, Ottawa, can be built for $4.00/sq ft, complete except for services. Basic stressed skin panels (fir plywood) with full thick glass fiber insulation packed in the closed panels and cedar plywood exterior are combined with open-joints to form an assembly, tied with shear dowels and continuous chords, to form a rigid box. Construction details and results of tests on panel bowing, condensation, heating, and effect of wind-blown rain and snow on joints, are discussed.
L'anquirraq : Préfabrication de maisons arctiques à prix modique. Des panneaux de base à revêtement contraint, avec pleine isolation et surface extérieure en contreplaqué de cèdre, sont combinés avec une charpente "ouverte" pour former une hutte nordique simple à très bas prix. L'ensemble, lié par des chevilles de cisaillement et des cordages continus, forme une boîte rigide. Une utilisation plus poussée de ces principes s'appliquerait aussi à une nouvelle maison arctique à deux étages.
The Arctic Institute of North America has made available for future research the facilities left by the Devon Island Expedition of 1960-63. These facilities consist of four Jamesway huts equipped to support research workers at the base, two Massey Ferguson tractors, one weasel and a large range of equipment designed to outfit scientists working in the field away from the base camp. In 1965, taking advantage of these facilities, two scientific programs were followed. The first, in geomorphology, was essentially a base-camp-oriented project run by two men. The second, in glaciology, was a field-oriented program run by two men and one woman working on the ice cap and three outlet valley glaciers. The geomorphology program was supported entirely by the Arctic Institute of North America. The glaciology program received financial support from the Arctic Institute of North America, U.S. Army Natick Laboratories, and the Royal Geographical Society. ...
The Polar community has suffered a great loss in the death in November 1965 of Frank Debenham. Debenham was a powerful inspiration to many polar workers, being at the same time a disciplinarian professor of geography and a warm hearted individual who, around his hospitable fireside, could inspire young men to take up a career, or a voluntary immolation into polar exploration. He was definitely the founder of what must be considered the senior Polar Research body of the world, the Scott Polar Research Institute at Cambridge. Many of us have thought out fanciful or practical schemes when confined to tent or igloo in a blizzard. But the idea of a repository of polar information and a centre from which future expeditions could draw their nourishment came to Frank Debenham on the slopes of Mt. Erebus in 1912. At that time he was a member of Capt. Scott's last Antarctic expedition, which ended triumphantly but tragically for the leader and his four companions. Britain and the world were profoundly moved by the death of these brave men and the public subscription to take care of their widows and children exceeded the funds required by a wide margin. It was from this surplus that Debenham's scheme for a Polar Institute was achieved, supported as he was by (Sir) James Wordie and (Sir) Raymond Priestly, two other great Antarctic men. From its inception in 1920-26 until 1946, Debenham was the Director of the Scott Polar Research Institute, and from 1930 Professor of Geography at Cambridge University. Debenham, Griffith Taylor, and Priestly were all three geologists on Scott's last expedition. The first two, Australians by birth, were distinguished founders or chairmen of University Geography Departments; the latter went on to be Vice-Chancellor of two universities and President of the Royal Geographical Society. Scott and Shackleton both knew how to pick men, and Debenham likewise attracted and then stimulated the very best. In these material modern days when a graduate student assistant expects a fat salary, it is of interest to record that until 1930 neither the Director nor his secretary nor any of the other workers at the Scott Polar Research Institute received a cent of pay, and thereafter only the secretary, who, at times, assisted Debenham in scrubbing the floor. Ill health plagued Professor Debenham for a time, at and after his retirement. But somehow a new lease on life arrived with his postwar researches in Africa and his scholarly writings, if anything, increased now that he no longer had to devote his leisure to housecleaning in the Polar Institute. In skull cap and smoking jacket he became the friend and mentor of a new generation of British polar enthusiasts. Although never an associate of the Arctic Institute of North America, we on this continent have felt his inspiration and join the rest of the world and his large family in mourning the loss of a great and lovable polar enthusiast.
Yakov Yakovlevich Gakkel' died in Leningrad on 30 December 1965 after a short illness. He was a geographer of the broadest kind, who gave almost the whole of his working life to arctic studies. He enjoyed a considerable reputation in the Soviet Union, and became known overseas mainly in the last phase of his life, when he was working on problems of the Arctic Ocean. He was born in 1901 in St. Petersburg, and was educated there. In 1921 he joined the Geographical Institute, which became in 1925 the geography faculty of Leningrad University. During this period he undertook his first expeditions: to study limnology in Karelia in 1924, and geomorphology in Yakutia in 1925. Meanwhile he was already active in sea-ice studies during the winters in the Gulf of Finland. In 1932 he joined the Arctic Institute, also in Leningrad, where he was to remain until his death. He was associated with many different sides of the Institute's work - oceanography, sea-ice studies, navigational problems, geomagnetism, geomorphology, and the history of exploration. He was in turn Head of various departments, latterly of that of geography and history of exploration, and in 1941-42 he was Deputy Director for Research. While with the Arctic Institute, he took part, often as leader, in 21 expeditions. Among the best-known of these were the first one-season navigation of the Northern Sea Route in the Sibiryakov in 1932, the ill-fated Chelyuskin expedition of 1933-34, high-latitude expeditions in Sadko in 1936 and Ob' in 1956, and the first double transit of the Route in the Mossovet in 1937. In 1948 he became interested in the idea, then mooted, of making wide use of the technique of studying the central polar basin by means of drifting stations on the ice. He was active in the work which led to the identification of the Lomonosov submarine ridge, and devoted much time to construction of bathymetric charts of the Arctic Ocean, based largely on drifting station data. This in turn led to an interest in the relation between bottom relief and the structure of the earth, a study he pursued with success, and on which he was still engaged when he died. He published widely in many fields. Of particular note are his contributions to sea-ice studies, especially on drift of floes; to problems of practical seamanship, such as magnetic compass behaviour; to the geomorphology of the Arctic Ocean (one of his last papers was a contribution on this subject to the still unpublished American Encyclopaedia of Earth Sciences); and to the history of Arctic studies, notably his history of the Arctic Institute (Za chetvert' veka, 1945) and his more general survey of Soviet achievements in this sphere (Nauka i osvoyeniye Arktiki, 1957) . He received the degree of Candidate of Geographical Sciences in 1938, Doctor in 1950 and the rank of Professor in 1953. He did not travel abroad much, and therefore was little known personally to his foreign colleagues. He was a likeable person, large, good-humoured, and helpful. I saw him last at an evening party in Leningrad three months before his death. The question arose: which of the company - all were polar specialists - had been longest at this game? Very modestly, he made his claim - and won by a year. When a scientist of the experience and judgement of Yakov Yakovlevich is no longer among us, we all feel the loss.
George Watson, retired district manager of the Hudson's Bay Company, died at Lachine, Que. on 25 December, 1965. He was born on 25 September, 1892 in Aberdeen, Scotland. After finishing his education and working for a short time there, he, like so many of his young fellow countrymen, joined the Hudson's Bay Company and came to Canada in June, 1914. After spending three years at Norway House in northern Manitoba, he was transferred to Moose Factory, James Bay, where he remained until 1925, first as district accountant and later as assistant district manager. At that time, when communications were not what they are today, both these places were the administrative and distribution centres of the large Indian territories around them. Coming to Montreal in 1926, he was appointed assistant to the manager of the then recently amalgamated districts comprising Quebec, Labrador, Ungava, and the Eastern Arctic. Promoted to district manager in 1931, he directed the operations of several of these areas until his retirement in 1954, after forty years of service. During most of this period, he had occasion to travel extensively throughout these territories and thus acquired an intimate knowledge of them and of their economic and sociological problems that is given to few today. Rather reluctantly George Watson came out of retirement to serve as temporary Director of the Montreal office of the Arctic Institute from 1955 to 1957. While there, his keen administrative ability and long experience in northern work proved to be most useful. George Watson was married in August 1919 to Edith Parsloe Cruickshank, also an Aberdonian, who had entered Canada by way of Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay for her marriage in Moose Factory. He is survived by his wife and one son, George Jr., both of whom reside in Lachine, Que.