An international symposium on the problems of the Canadian Arctic was held in Montreal in September 1963. The symposium was sponsored jointly by McGill University and the Arctic Institute of North America, and among those attending it was the eminent Soviet glaciologist Prof. P. Shumsky, D.Sci. (Geography), who received later an honorary degree of Doctor of Science from McGill University. P. Antonov, correspondent of Soviet Union Today, met Professor Shumsky on his return to Moscow and asked him to say a few words about the work of the symposium, his impressions of Canada, and of his meetings with Canadian scientists, public leaders, and ordinary people, to which he replied as follows. ...
Reports the physical and chemical data obtained from a 1956 survey of this lake in south-central Baffin. Its geographical location, morphometry, ice, temperature, and transparency are outlined, also its oxygen and mineral content. Fish, bottom fauna, and plankton crustaceans collected are listed, including some new to the Nearctic and some northernmost records. Thermal conditions in arctic lakes are discussed, as are differences between the two morphological regions of Nettilling, and restricted distributions of some of its organisms.
Reports on the pattern and origin of asymmetry in this area, investigated in 1959 and 1960 in connection with Project Chariot studies. Observations from field traverses and interpretation of topographic maps and vertical aerial photographs indicate a high preponderance of steeper north-facing valley sides. This development seems best explained by a sequence of processes initiated by a greater morphologic activity on the warmer south-facing slopes. Effects of snowbanks should also be considered.
Reports experience in expeditionary transport in 1962-63. The 650 lb Polaris K-95 Ranger motor toboggans are described, and their maintenance, operation, engine starting, performance, fuel consumption and capabilities outlined. Various kinds of sleds were used, though mostly the 90 lb Nansen-type Grasshopper; sled performance, accessories, connections, and braking are noted. Methods of steering and rigging the sled trains are also discussed. The equipment proved efficient, inexpensive, relatively safe and comfortable to operate, with few mechanical troubles.
Outlines natural resources, industries, transport facilities, and development plans in northwest Siberia. Timber reserves estimated at 190,000 million bd ft, large oil and gas deposits, iron ore, etc are noted in the Ob basin as are coal, iron ore, water power, etc in the Yenisey basin. Industrial centers, utilizing cheap electric power are planned in the Angara-Yenisey region.
Antoinette Bay constitutes the central arm of Greely Fiord and extends 40 km. east-northeastward from its junction with Tanquary Fiord in about 80°50'N, 79°W. A large tidewater glacier, flowing northwestward from the Mer de Glace Agassiz to the southeast, has blocked off the head of the bay (or, more properly, fiord) and separates it from the long narrow lake that is the natural extension of the fiord to the east. We visited Antoinette Bay and the lake on June 2 and 3, 1963 during the course of an oceanographic traverse over the sea-ice from the field station of the Defence Research Board at the head of Tanquary Fiord. Antoinette Bay is a typical steep-sided fiord; a single sounding, taken 10 km. from its mouth, showed no bottom at 240 m. The lake, which is unnamed, was visited on the chance of finding interesting structural and temperature conditions in the lake water. ...
Examines, especially, the export of ice from the Arctic Ocean between Greenland and Svalbard, as it effects the Ocean's energy budget. The amounts exported monthly and annually by wind and by current are calculated, methods described. Total export, estimated at 950,000-1,000,000 km approaches the Russian estimates of 1,036,000 km. Annual variations 1921-1956 are calculated, and export by wind and that by current found equally variable. The general heat gain by ice and currents for the Arctic Ocean fluctuates with a mean deviation of 4.7%; but for a particular year, a difference of 15-20% is likely.
Preliminary geomorphological study of a newly discovered Dorset culture site on Melville Island, N.W.T.
Arctic, v. 17, no. 2, June 1964, p. 119-125, ill., figure, map
ASTIS record 9934
Describes a prehistoric dwelling found at McCormick Inlet in 1962. Location of the site at 1.75 m above high water and its age, estimated at 1150-1740 yr from radiocarbon dating of moss, indicate negligible land emergence during the last one and a half millennia. Prehistoric sites recorded by other explorers on the island are also noted and mapped.
Reports on a Dorset Eskimo site discovered by Henoch, qv. Architectural features of the dwelling and the artifacts collected are described. The large size of the stone tools (illus), and lack of some customary Dorset facts are unusual. The site is on the western periphery of the known range of Dorset culture, and further work may elucidate Dorset-Alaskan relationships.
In addition to its many other activities the Institute has supported polar exploration through its manifold logistic activities. This work consists mainly in procuring, processing, and shipping material and equipment needed in the field; in providing support for outside projects under contract agreements and for work projects sponsored by the Institute itself; and the development of cold-weather clothing and trail gear. Under the terms of contracts with the U.S. National Science Foundation and the U.S. Department of Defense, and also for the support of projects sponsored by the Institute, a total of 435 purchase orders for supplies were issued during 1963. The items ordered ranged from clothing to major equipment and represented an outlay of $275,000. ... [Summarizes the Institute's support during 1963 for the U.S. Antarctic Research Program, the Icefield Ranges Research Program at Kluane Lake, the Devon Island Expedition (which terminated in Sept. 1963) and the development of cold weather clothing and tents.]
John Aito Pihlainen, civil engineer and a Fellow of the Arctic Institute since 1960, died suddenly in Ottawa in January of this year. He was born in Finland and emigrated to Canada with his parents in 1928. In 1950 he obtained his B.Eng. degree at McGill University and his M.Sc. at Purdue University two years later. He joined the Division of Building Research of the National Research Council in 1950 and pioneered the Division's investigations of permafrost and associated construction problems in northern Canada, beginning with a survey in 1950 of the construction and performance of buildings in the Mackenzie River valley. The following year he worked again in the Mackenzie Valley with an expedition examining the applicability of air photo interpretation methods for engineering site surveys in permafrost areas. In 1952 he established the Division's Northern Research Station at Norman Wells, N.W.T. from which numerous permafrost field projects were carried out in the Mackenzie Valley over a number of years. The Aklavik Relocation Survey of 1954 took him and his colleagues to the Mackenzie Delta where he was in charge of permafrost investigations to select a new townsite. For the next few years he was closely associated with the varied and comprehensive permafrost engineering studies being carried out by the Division of Building Research at Inuvik using this new town as a field laboratory. He also carried out field investigations in other parts of Canada's permafrost region and during his ten years with the National Research Council he became widely known for his broad knowledge of permafrost and associated engineering problems, and development of the philosophy of carefully executed site investigations prior to construction. In December 1960 he left the National Research Council and entered into private practice as an arctic consulting engineer based in Ottawa. During the three years prior to his death he was engaged in various engineering projects throughout northern Canada. Through his field work and many published papers he made notable contributions to the advancement of engineering site investigations and construction in permafrost areas. John Pihlainen was universally liked and respected for his practical approach mixed with an unusual sense of good humour. By many people living in the North, he was affectionately known as "Johnny Permafrost". His unexpected and tragic death cut short a successful career which had promised to add many more notable contributions to the development of Canada's permafrost region.
One hundred and fifty years ago, on February 27, 1814, Samuel Kleinschmid, the eminent Greenlandic linguist, was born in Lichtenau in southern Greenland. His father, Konrad Kleinschmidt, was a German belonging to the Moravian Brethren, who had sent him to Greenland as missionary in 1793. In 1812 Konrad lost his wife, but in the following year, during a stay in Scotland, he married a Danish woman, Christen Petersen, who became the mother of Samuel. Learning Greenlandic from his play fellows from birth Samuel became familiar with three languages. In addition, his father took a great interest in the Greenlandic language and his translations of the Holy Script were later mentioned with great respect by his son, who rated them considerably higher than most other translations made by the missionaries. Thus was laid in early childhood the germ for his future work that was destined to be of such great importance for the Greenlanders and their intellectual and social culture. ... Furthermore, he is said to have shown very good pedagogical abilities. All this was no doubt well known to the Moravian authorities, who finally sent Samuel back to Greenland in 1841, where he was destined to remain for the rest of his life. The first 5 years he spent again in Lichtenau as assistant in the missionary work, with the special task of studying the Greenlandic language. This he did with great zeal, which sometimes brought him into conflict with his superiors because he refused to perform some of the more trivial duties, as gardening, gathering of wood, beer brewing, etc. No doubt he worked hard, as can be deduced from the fact that the manuscript of his fundamental grammatical work, "Grammatik der gronlandischen Sprache", printed in Berlin in 1851, was in all essentials finished as early as 1846. ... In spite of many sincere efforts by the Brethren a mutual understanding proved to be impossible. Kleinschmidt was even invited to Germany by the highest Moravian authorities to plead for himself, but he only answered with the words: "One remains in Greenland!". The unavoidable consequence was that he was finally dismissed from his service with the Moravian Mission, although apparently with regret. This happened in 1859 and Kleinschmidt moved over to the Danes in Godthåb where from then on he was employed at the training college (seminarium) for Greenlandic catechists. ... In Godthåb Kleinschmidt found at once a more satisfactory field of action. He was very much concerned over the decline of the Greenlandic society that was then taking place in many respects and it became a matter of faith to him to exert all his strength to re-establish the old morale and self-reliance of the Greenlanders. ... In this connection the respect for the Greenlandic language in particular was felt by Kleinschmidt as something extremely important. He fully understood the close connection between language, way of thinking, and culture in general and he studied indefatigably the Greenlandic language with deep penetration to find what he called "its true nature". In the course of these studies he established the Greenlandic phonemic system, long before the concept of a phoneme had found its place in linguistic thinking, and on this he based his new orthography, which the ensuing hundred years have not been able to shake. The new and consequent orthography was used in the Greenlandic periodical atuagagdliutit, which has appeared uninterruptedly since 1861, as well as in schoolbooks written by Kleinschmidt himself, in literature and, first and foremost, in the new translation of the Bible, which Kleinschmidt no doubt felt to be his most important task. He based his translation on the original texts and managed in an admirable way to find expressions understandable to the Greenlanders for the many phenomena and ideas that were totally foreign to the native mind. Finally his mature linguistic results appeared in his Greenlandic dictionary "Den grønlandske Ordbog" in 1871, which, together with his grammar is basic for our understanding of the Greenlandic language. ...