... In view of the number of organizations annually participating in these expeditions, the Argentine Government decided to establish one central organization to be responsible for the scientific work done by Argentina in the Antarctic. In addition, this organization was to be the common repository for information gathered on previous Argentine expeditions, as well as for that of future endeavours. The Instituto Antartico Argentino was therefore established in Buenos Aires. It is a scientific and technical organization whose mission is to study the nature of the antarctic region. From its inception, it has steadily grown to occupy a prominent position in antarctic affairs and become the leading organization influential in all Argentine antarctic problems. By Presidential Order the organization entitled "Instituto Antartico Argentino 'Coronel Hernan Pujato' " was established on 17 April 1951 under the administration of the Minister of Technical Affairs. The name honored Coronel Hernan Pujato, who commanded the first Argentine Army antarctic expedition. He became the Institute's first Director. With the preparations for the International Geophysical Year underway, the Institute's activities expanded and Captain Rodolfo N. Panzarini, now a retired rear admiral, was named Director. He still retains this position and is the main driving force behind the organization (see Fig. 1). At the time of his nomination, the organization officially took the name "Instituto Antartico Argentino" (I.A.A.). The Institute is an in-house polar organization, containing in one building the entire administrative staff, scientists, technicians, laboratories, shops, and equipment storage facilities necessary to carry out scientific investigations in the Antarctic. There is an advantage in keeping under one roof the majority of persons with an active interest in antarctic work so that they can confer easily with one another, exchange data, and have easy access to a polar library. Such a closely knit organization constitutes a potentially powerful voice in antarctic affairs. This voice perhaps is not as great a consideration in the present thinking of other polar organizations as it is with the Argentines, whose interest in Antarctica, and in particular the Palmer Peninsula area, is very strong. ...
Summarizes 1961-1962 field studies of settlements resulting from post-World War II development in the Northwest Territories. On criteria of community planning, function, and social structure, seven settlement types are distinguished: isolated technical, e.g. weather stations; military; outpost service, e.g. Dorset; serviced native enclave, e.g. Akudlik at Churchill; regional administrative; frontier; and mining. Each type is characterized as to social organization and population. Civil servants, as to their reaction to settlement life, as is the white settlers, and aboriginals are noted danger of arrested cultural transition among the aboriginals.
Reports a survey in a mountain valley at 67 N. on eastern Baffin during the 1953 Arctic Institute expedition. Some 389 adult birds of eight species were counted in a square-mile study area in mid-June; density varied with habitat, being greatest on wet grassy and sedgy flats; comparisons are made with three other arctic bird counts. Breeding success, 60 % for passerine birds, was estimated by counting nests and fledged broods in July.
Reports studies of mysids on the Arctic Slope and adjacent continental shelf off Barrow in summer 1961. Several localities, their physical and chemical properties and faunal compositions described, were investigated as possible habitats of Mysis. M. relicta were found in abundance in a freshwater lake, a marine lagoon, and a metahaline pond; the species apparently prefers shallow inland waters to the open sea. The absence of mysids from several freshwater lakes is attributed to isolation. Dispersal in this unglaciated area is considered, also possible interspecific competition between M. relicta and litoralis.
Describes and considers the cultural affinities of an ivory lance head and its presumably associated grey chert end blade from northern Baffin Island. Its pre-Dorset origin is based on similarity to materials collected by Meldgaard (No. 66668) near Igloolik. Comparisons are made with lance and harpoon heads of Dorset age from the Eastern Arctic and specimens from various cultural stages during the first and perhaps second millenium B.C. in Alaska. Consistent occurrence of certain attributes indicates the probability of their being found also in the Denbigh Flint Complex.
Reports 1955 and 1957 investigations of this glacier in the Chugach Mts. near Valdez. Snow depths (less than expected), accumulation, and ablation (greatest on warm, windy days) were studied at 3180-9500 ft on the main and east branches. Variations in snow depth with altitude and location on the glacier were also examined. Accumulation-ablation ratios, compared for various parts of Columbia and for some other Alaskan glaciers, indicate that the main branch is gaining and the east branch losing strength. The beginning of a new crevasse, also a large ice avalanche were seen in 1957.
Proposes a method for hastening the spring melting by hosing the ice with sea water. This would raise the salinity of the surface from approx. 5 per mil in the Arctic, to 20 or 30 per mil, resulting in increased absorption of solar radiation, greater surface heat, etc., which in turn would weaken the ice. This method, utilizing submersible pumps, should be relatively inexpensive.
Dr. Carl Robert Eklund, posthumous Fellow of the Arctic Institute of North America, prominent in arctic and antarctic research, Chief of the Polar and Arctic Branch of the U.S. Army Research Office, died on November 3, 1962 at the age of 53. His gregarious friendly nature, good humour and knack of story-telling made him a cherished friend of all who knew him. For 23 years he was a leading American specialist in ornithology and geographic research in both the north and south polar regions. His U.S. Government service in the Department of the Interior and the Department of the Army was approaching 29 years. Carl was born in Tomahawk, Wisconsin on January 27, 1909. ... With solid training and experience he answered the lure of the polar regions. From 1939-41 he served as ornithologist at the East Base of the U.S. Antarctic Service. This was the first modern U.S. Government-sponsored expedition to Antarctica, and the third of Rear Admiral Richard E. Bird's Antarctic commands. In addition to his collection of animal life for the Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Carl made one of the longest antarctic dog sled journeys accompanying Finn Ronne in a landward encirclement of Alexander I Island from the Palmer Peninsula Station on Stonington Island. Islands sighted near the turning point of this journey were named the Eklund Islands in his honour by the Board of Geographical Names. From 1941 to 43 he returned to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as research biologist in charge of game conservation and education on Indian reservations at Minneapolis, Minnesota. During World War II he served as commissioned officer, advancing to Major in the U.S. Army Air Force. He served in the Arctic Section of the Arctic Desert Tropic Information Center. ... The call of the polar regions drew him south again. His skill and experience were needed by the IGY organizers of the National Academy of Sciences. He was appointed as the first Scientific Station Leader of the Wilkes Station, Antarctica. His field leadership was outstanding, and he vigorously pursued his own program of biological and ornithological research. His bird banding program became international in scope around the entire continent. His field studies provided a basis for his doctoral thesis on the south-polar skua. He received his Ph.D. in zoology and geography from the University of Maryland in 1959. To maintain an intimate pursuit of polar research he accepted in 1958 the position of Chief of the Polar and Arctic Branch, Environmental Research Division of the U.S. Army Research Office, Washington, D.C. In this capacity he directed an extensive inter-disciplinary research program in the Arctic, necessitating frequent visits to Greenland and Alaska. Meanwhile, he served on the National Academy of Sciences Committee on Polar Research advising on research for Antarctica. His national and international reputation grew rapidly and his service as a lecturer and consultant on polar matters were in constant demand. His selection as the first president of the Antarctican Society of Washington, D.C. was a natural one. Dr. Eklund's publications during the last 20 years, mostly on zoological and ornithological topics, number close to 30. His first book, co-authored with Joan Beckman, "Antarctica, Land of Science", was in draft form at the time of his death. ... In spite of average build, his warm human kindliness, his mischievous humorous blue eyes, broad smile, short-cropped hair, and ready wit interspersed with clearly thought out serious observations made him a colourful figure in the polar world at its critical transition from the days of hard-fought polar discoveries to the modern research area.