Reminisces on icebreaking vessels used in charting the Hudson Bay route prior to World War I. Several were sold to the Russians for war service in arctic waters, and one, the Earl Grey, subsequently became well known as the Fedor Litke.
The movement of Atlantic water in the Arctic Ocean
Arctic, v. 16, no. 1, Mar. 1963, p. 8-16, figures
Contribution - University of Washington. Dept. of Oceanography, no. 261
ASTIS record 9892
Re-evaluates sixty years' oceanographic data from the Arctic Ocean, examining nearly 300 deep-water stations, and using the "core-layer" method of Wust to interpret the movement of the Atlantic layer. Stations are grouped in 16 areas and the average curve for each group plotted on a temperature-salinity diagram. Temperature and salinity changes which take place in the Atlantic water while and entity in the Arctic Basin are graphed. The temperature maximum is reduced by about 3.5 C, and the salinity at max. temperature is reduced by about 0.2 %. Superimposed on the T-S relationship is an arbitrary scale indicating percentage retention of the original characteristics. The velocity of the Atlantic layer is found (from current velocity, eddy coefficients and station data) to range 1-10 cm/sec and values of Kz (vertical eddy coefficient) generally to range 1-20 sq cm/sec. Percentage retention of characteristics from the T-S diagram is mapped to suggest a relation between the flow of Atlantic water and bathymetry, distance, time, as well as the T-S features. Assuming the velocity along the core to be 3 cm/sec, the constant vertical eddy coefficient to be 10 sq cm/sec, and with other assumptions on temperature distribution, an estimate of 8,000,000 sq cm/sec is obtained for the constant lateral eddy coefficient.
Reviews studies of fungi north of the limit of spruce, and discusses arctic fungi characteristics and potential scientific significance. Environmental adaptations in reproduction, life cycle, dispersal, host plants, and morphology are described. Extensions in the known ranges of four species are noted.
Description and partial interpretation of the natural emptying of this ice-dammed lake in south-central Alaska. Regional and site characteristics, the 1951 observations and other emptyings since 1935 are described; and the age of the lake as evidenced by terracettes, willows, alders, and exposed deltas, is considered. When studied July 20, 1951, it was about 2-4 mi wide, 11-12 mi long, 114 ft deep, and dammed by Knik Glacier. In 12 days, the lake water had undercut the glacier ice and escaped, leaving three small, shallow lakes with 42 % less water surface. The drop in level (up to 12 in/hr) was accompanied by the rise of Knik River from 7 to nearly 20 ft depth, and flooding. A trend is noted toward earlier emptying and greater flooding.
Describes summer 1961 radiation measurements in northern Quebec - Labrador. The study was made (methods noted) to test a correlation established by Orvig (No. 74547) from data obtained in 1958, viz a correlation coefficient of 0.777 between the mean daytime net flux and the daily total short-wave radiation. The 1961 measurements showed a close similarity to the 1958, as did the correlation coefficient of 0.736; data for the two years are tabulated.
Notes studies of glaciology and glacial geology in the central Alaska Range. The re-formation of foliation at the base of the Gulkana and East Gulkana were especially considered. Recent moraines, dated by lichenometry, indicate minor advances in the mid-18th and mid-19th centuries. For the 1960-61 investigations, see No. 74769.
Royal E. Shanks was born in Ada, Ohio on November 11, 1912. He lost his life on August 4, 1962 while swimming and studying a coral reef in a bay of the Caribbean Sea in Porte Limon, Costa Rica. He completed his M. S. in 1937 and received his Ph.D. degree a year later. From 1940 to 1946 Dr. Shanks held the post of Professor of Biology at Austin Peay State College in Tennessee with brief periods of service in both the Army and Navy. In 1947 he joined the University of Tennessee as an Associate Professor of Botany and became a Professor two years later. In 1955 a concern with environmental aspects of ecosystems led him to propose some fundamental studies in the most simple environments, those of the arctic regions. It was this interest that developed a close relationship and association between Dr. Shanks and the Arctic Institute of North America. From 1955 until the time of his death he received six grants from the Institute for the study of composition, structure, and productivity of tundra vegetation in northern Alaska. During his field studies in Alaska Dr. Shanks covered an extensive area on the northern coast of Alaska extending eastward nearly to the Canadian border and southward to the mountains and forests. Numerous publications have resulted from this research. Not only has Dr. Shanks made a considerable contribution to arctic research, but his ability has been recognized by his election to office in a number of scientific societies. A colleague of Dr. Shanks has said, "his manner was gentle, his activity great, his enthusiasm contagious".
The establishment of the Arctic Institute's Devon Island Base Station and the progress of the research program in 1960 and 1961 were reported in brief summaries and preliminary field reports in Arctic 13:270-71 and 14:252-65, and a review of the research from September 1961 to September 1962 appeared in Arctic 15:317-320. Preliminary field reports for that period are presented here. ...