Research at some stage involves recourse to the literature. Literature records are usually organized according to disciplines or subjects. Research interests that cut across subject lines, as do area studies, require an independent control of the literature. Thus the Arctic and Subarctic, though unique by nature, present by reason of their extent and diversity unusual problems in the organization and control of literature. An attempt to solve these problems is being made by the Arctic Institute of North America in its "Arctic Bibliography." The history and purpose of this project, its financing, staffing, procedures with their inherent difficulties, and results are outlined below, together with some byproducts of the main effort. Research and planning in their arctic phases during World War II were constantly hampered by dearth of information, lack of ready access to it, and at times by uncertainty as to whether data required were obscurely recorded or non-existent. Most of the founders of the Arctic Institute had been in such predicament during their war service and one of the first efforts of the Institute was to provide a key to the existing literature covering its area of interest. Groundwork and financing of the project took a year's time. Its directors were drawn from the scientific community, armed services, and library world, as well as the Institute itself. Project personnel began compilation in the summer 1947; "Arctic Bibliography" began publication with three volumes in 1953, and continues to the present, volume 11 being in press and 12 in compilation. The series is designed as a permanent reference work, especially for use in research remote from the great libraries and special information centres. The early volumes are retrospective; the later ones are current and appear at about yearly intervals for use when the high-frequency listings in card or throw-away form from a variety of sources have served the immediate need and are falling into desuetude. The volumes have low maintenance cost, mere shelf room; they are easy to use, very handy for the individual scientist; and the nominal price per volume from the U.S. Government Printing Office puts them within the reach of all. ...
Surface water in the Eurasian Basin of the Arctic Ocean
Arctic, v. 15, no. 4, Dec. 1962, p. 251-277, ill.
Contribution - University of Washington. Dept. of Oceanography, no. 264
ASTIS record 9884
Reports results of re-appraisal and interpretation of data from 74 oceanographic stations (of >400 occupied), listed according to vessel and source. Surface water occupies the uppermost 200 m It is almost continuously supplied by continental runoff from Siberia which mixes with and collects saline water, to a few hundred times its original volume, as it crosses the arctic shelf seas. The surface water then flows directly to the exit from the basin between Spitsbergen and Greenland. Three layers of surface water are distinguished, on the basis of temperature and salinity features. Variations and ranges within each layer are thought the result of geographic location, presence of ice cover, seasonal changes, convection , and advection. Lowest layer, from 100 m down to the Atlantic water, shows evidence of mixing with the subsurface layer, as well as evidence of continuous replenishment. Prevalence of the cold subsurface layer in this basin is explained by a proposed model, which recognizes the submarine canyons, notably the Svyataya Anna in the Kara Sea, as important factors in mixing and cooling and as primary sources of subsurface water.
Analysis of some stratigraphic observations and radiocarbon dates from two pingos in the Mackenzie Delta area, N.W.T.
Arctic, v. 15, no. 4, Dec. 1962, p. 278-288, ill., figures, table
ASTIS record 9885
Reports investigations of the Ibyuk and Sitiyok pingos near Tuktoyaktuk, in May-July 1955. The former in the center of a former lake is 42 m high, 900 m in circumference at base; the latter 10 m in height, 210 m in circumference. The internal ice bodies and covering sediments are described and pingo age is estimated as 7-10,000 yrs for Ibyuk, 4000 yrs for Sitiyok. Occurrence of a late Wisconsin glaciation is indicated in the Ibyuk area and certain isostatic movements in the Mackenzie Delta. The land rose approx. 40 m over the last 12,000 yrs, also submergence of about 30 m with subsequent emergence was initiated by glaciation.
Discusses fears of ghosts and graveyards among the Labrador Eskimos, resulting from contacts with whites. Among spirits feared are the Angnasheotik, described by three informants from the Fort Chimo area of northern Quebec as ghosts of white men who molest Eskimo and Naskopi Indian women. The origin of belief in the Angnasheotik is considered, and the hypothesis discussed that they represent expression of hostile attitudes toward whites.
Discusses distribution of the bears, and takes exception to certain statements of A.W.F. Banfield (No. 56712). His thesis of a recent eastward range extension as a continuation of the species' postglacial dispersal from Beringia is rejected. The range of the species is considered to have changed many times since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation; recent increase of bears in the east is probably a minor range fluctuation. Occurrence of grizzlies in northern Quebec - Labrador is not to be discounted, as Banfield does: several records of bears seen near the eastern end of the range since 1948 are cited.
The names of economically important or conspicuous mammals and birds in the Indian languages of the District of Mackenzie, N.W.T. and in Sarcee
Arctic, v. 15, no. 4, Dec. 1962, p. 299-308
ASTIS record 9888
The lists of Indian animal names in this short paper are presented for two reasons. Until very recently most adult natives of the area, having had no formal education, spoke no English. It was therefore judged that the lists, with a simple code of pronounciation, could aid the work of game wardens, Indian agents, and others working with the natives. The more important reason is, however, that the native languages dealt with are almost certainly on the way to extinction, mainly because the schooling for the local Indians now provided by the Canadian Federal Government is in English only. ...
Tabulates monthly and annual averages of mean daily temperature in degrees Fahrenheit, also highest and lowest temperatures at eight stations in the Yukon and 34 in (mostly) the arctic islands and Mackenzie District. All the stations have been in operation at least 10 yrs, and some for over 30 yrs. For the latter, temperature averages are classed as normals.
The Arctic Institute is maintaining a research program on Devon Island, N.W.T., the purposes of which include fundamental studies in geophysics, glaciology, meteorology, and oceanography, with particular attention to the interrelationships between the marine and glacial environments. Detailed studies in archaeology and geology are also supported. The establishment of the base station and the preliminary archaeological reconnaissance in 1960 have been reported in Arctic 13:270-71. A summary of the field work of the first full season, 1961, together with several preliminary reports has appeared in Arctic 14:252-65. The field season of 1961 ended on September 12 when the various field parties were taken to Thule, Greenland, by the U.S. Coast Guard icebreaker Westwind. ...