... The entire Arctic Ocean has now ceased to be remote and is open to study on a year-round basis by nuclear submarines (Strong 1961). Admittedly, there are limitations to the use of a nuclear submarine for arctic research, but the advantages heavily out-weigh the disadvantages. First among the advantages to be gained through the use of this type of vehicle is mobility (Lyon and Boyle 1962). The nuclear submarine is a self-contained community capable of operating under all arctic conditions for extended periods of time. Its mobility is not a function of pre-determined drift patterns, for the submarine can be directed to any desired place, at a wide range of speed and depth. With its special equipment, such as underwater television and SONAR, it can "see" and "hear" below the surface (Steele 1962). There is adequate space for modest laboratory facilities, a controlled atmosphere, and accommodation for a scientific staff, who are comfortable and have every incentive for conducting research (Molloy 1961). Another advantage, and an equally important one, is the natural protection that the arctic environment offers to the submarine. The polar ice pack that presents such serious obstacles to the conduct of oceanographic research from the surface can be used to advantage by the nuclear submarine. It provides a nearly homogeneous environment free from disturbances of weather and other factors that the oceanographer encounters in the open ocean. The advantages of submarine research in the Arctic are even more readily apparent after evaluating the accomplishments of the U.S. Navy's arctic submarine cruises during the past few years. The floor of the Arctic Ocean was sounded continuously during each cruise (Lyon and Boyle 1962). As a result of this, there is now more information available on the bathymetry of the Arctic Ocean than had been obtained during the previous 75 years of arctic exploration. We have now more data relating to the ice pack over broad areas and under various seasonal conditions than ever before. Ice and water samples, as well as bathythermograph observations, also have been obtained at various points in the arctic basin (LaFond 1960). In addition the submarine itself has been a prime research tool whose advantages have not been limited to being a vehicle for transportation (Lyon and Boyle 1962). For example, surfacings through the ice have answered some of the questions relating to the ice cover. In many respects the Arctic has been the laboratory and the submarine the instrument with which the research was carried out (Lyon 1961). The arctic cruises of the U.S. Navy submarines have not been conducted as purely oceanographic ventures, but diversified scientific programs have been carried out during each of the cruises (Strong 1961). It is manifest from these modest beginnings that the nuclear submarine is an ideal platform from which to launch a research program of rather large dimensions. ...
When undertaking a study of the lateral variation of the salinity of sea-ice it is necessary to select an area of ice with a known history. The field measurements reported here were made in North Star Bay, Thule, northwestern Greenland .... The sampling for the sheet ice grid was started at 1100 on November 6 and by 2100 the 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-foot grids were completed. The 32-, 64- and 128-foot grids were completed the following morning. ... Sampling of the pancake ice was started at 0900 on November 9 and completed by the evening of the same day. ... the standard deviation of the salinity values from closely spaced cored samples in sheet ice is always equal to or greater than ±0.3 per mil. In pancake ice, the standard deviation is usually ±1.0 per mil. ... this uncertainty will produce a standard deviation of approx. ±4 to 6 per cent of the total brine volume in the sheet ice and ±11 to 19 per cent of the total brine volume in pancake ice. This then accounts for a considerable proportion of the scatter observed in studying the strength properties of sea-ice.
Arctic soil classification and patterned ground
Arctic, v. 15, no. 2, June 1962, p. 109-116, ill., figures, table
Journal series paper - Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station, no. 999
ASTIS record 9870
Discusses relationships between soils and patterned ground, observed in northern Alaska; and suggests a classification descriptive of both. Such is desirable because of the extent to which frost action and the microrelief of patterned ground influence soil morphology in arctic areas. Specific ground patterns often occur with particular genetic soils. The patterned-ground classification by A.L. Washburn (No. 48863) with minor revisions, could be integrated with that of the soil types.
Discusses tundra environments, i.e. beyond the climatic timberline, mostly in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and USSR, and various mechanisms used by plants in adapting to them. Despite a very short growing season with low air and soil temperatures, adverse wind effects, and a low nitrogen-utilization level, tundra plants are well adapted to their environment. They are apparently efficient converters of energy, due partly to their utilization of much of the growing season for growth and development, their use of considerable carbohydrate reserves of the previous year, and the higher caloric values of the species.
Describes an upward arch of soil and ice and its associated aufeis field, examined on the Arctic Slope in northeast Alaska on June 25, 1959. The icing mound consisted of a sinuous ridge about 250 ft. long which terminated in a low dome about 20 ft. high at the north end and in a lower pointed "tail" at the south end. Part of the "tail" had collapsed and revealed an underlying layer of ice about 4 ft thick characterized by a vertical columnar structure and overlain by 2 ft of organic silt and fine sand. The probable cause of uplift of the icing mound was cryostatic pressures accompanying growth of a ground-ice lens and hydrostatic pressures occurring, probably, when water backed up by the formation of aufeis became trapped between the ground-ice lens and permafrost.
Describes use of air temperatures to determine permafrost presence for engineering purposes. Annual mean temperature and thawing index (a yearly summation of daily mean temperature over 32 F) in 61 localities of northern Canada were compared with reported permafrost occurrences. The latter are divided into four categories: free of permafrost; discontinuous permafrost; continuous permafrost in forest, and in tundra. Correlations were found in all but twelve of the localities; the latter are considered individually and in some, permafrost was uncertain.
Some microbiological and sanitary aspects of military operations in Greenland
Arctic, v. 15, no. 2, June 1962, p. 155-159, figures, tables
ASTIS record 9874
Describes, from a longer report (cf. No. 64724.) studies of sanitation practices and problems of wound healing and fly-borne contamination at Camp Tuto, 14 mi from the Thule Air Force Base, supplemented with data from two camps on the icecap. Bacteria from water supplies, from surface snow, and soil and also bacteria from wounds and from flies were isolated, identified and counted. No evidence of water contamination was found though bacteria appear to survive the arctic winter in the soil.
Reviews this expedition to study the evolution of the mountainous and strongly glacierized and glaciated area of the central part of western Axel Heiberg Island. It was initiated by G. Jacobsen, had a four-man reconnaissance survey in 1959, a 27-man operation in May-Aug. 1960, an 18-man party to spend four months of 1961 on the island with smaller groups in 1962 and later years. A map survey is reported by T.J. Blachut and D. Haumann; glaciology by F. Muller, W.P. Adams, U. Zysset; seismic operations by B.B. Redpath, gravity measurements by A. Becker; meteorology by J.M. Havens and R.H.G. Andrews; geology is described by E.H. Kranck, P.E. Fricker, and E.W. Hoen; geomorphology is reviewed in French by B. Robitaille; botany by R.E. Beschel, and palynology by O. Hegg; the permafrost program is outlined by G. Jacobsen, and mountaineering by J. Marmet. Base camp was constructed at 79 25 N, 90 30 W to serve as a permanent high Arctic Research Station for McGill University.
Disagrees with the suggestion of Sinclair and Topchy, q.v., that Soviet geographical names be anglicized in English-language publications. The policy of transliterating both generic and specific parts of Soviet names prevents international confusion and involves only minor differences in spelling. Sinclair and Topchy answer, p. 164-65.
Sir James Mann Wordie, C.B.E., an Honorary Member of the Arctic Institute of North America, died in Cambridge on January 16, 1962 at the age of 72. In his quiet way he exerted a very great influence on polar work in Britain for some 40 years, and it is unlikely that anyone again will be able to fill the sort of position he held. He bridged the gap between two eras in the history of exploration, and by virtue of his work at Cambridge, his wide and scholarly knowledge, and his great practical experience he was able to perform a unique function in advising and guiding the work of others. ... His first visit to a polar land came in 1913, when he went to the Yukon and Yakutat Bay on an excursion that followed the International Geological Conference at Toronto. Back in Cambridge, he was engaged in graduate work in the Sedgwick Museum, where also the lately returned members of Scott's last expedition were working on their material. As a result of this association he joined Ernest Shackleton's British Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition as geologist and chief of scientific staff, and thus participated in the now almost legendary adventure of the Endurance (1914-17). After the ship had been crushed by the ice of the Weddell Sea, and months had been spent in improvised camps on the pack-ice, the expedition reached Elephant Island, where Wordie remained with the main party while Shackleton made his extraordinary open-boat journey to South Georgia for help. ... When the expedition returned, the war was still being fought and Wordie joined the Royal Field Artillery. In 1919 he returned to Cambridge and at once took up polar work again, this time in the Arctic. In the summer of that year and of 1920 he was geologist and second-in-command (to W. S. Bruce) of expeditions to Spitsbergen. Then in 1921 he started his own series of arctic expeditions, which were to extend over nearly two decades. ... After four visits to the Greenland Sea he now turned his attention to the shores of Baffin Bay. In 1934, taking a party that included ornithologists as well as geologists and archaeologists, he made for Melville Bay, intending to call at Kap York and then cross to Ellesmere Island. Ice was unfavourable, however, and after some work ashore at Upernavik and farther north, the expedition crossed Baffin Bay south of the "Middle Ice" and spent the remaining month surveying and charting Eglinton Fiord and Clyde Inlet. Wordie was still determined to get to Ellesmere Island, and in 1937 he succeeded. Bache Peninsula was reached and then the ship cruised down the east coast of Ellesmere Island and Baffin Island. Survey and geological work were carried out, and archaeological sites investigated at Carey Řer, and Turnstone Beach on Ellesmere Island. ... He was a founder-member of the Committee of Management of the Scott Polar Research Institute, and its Chairman from 1937 to 1955. ... Of those in Britain today who have played any active part in polar work, there are few who have not at some time benefitted, and benefitted greatly, by Wordie's stimulation, kindness, and help.