Equations relating the accretion and decay of sea ice to standard meteorological data are derived empirically from observations at Alert, Eureka, Isachsen, Mould Bay, and Resolute, 1947-1957. The differential equations permit calculation of ice growth by increments, and contain a separate term allowing for variations in snow-cover depths. The use of the formulas requires only a knowledge of air temperatures and snow depths. Good correlation is found between decrease in ice thickness and accumulated degree-days above -1.8°C. The stations' locations and names of adjacent water bodies are indicated with the approximate water depths where ice thickness measurements were made. Techniques used in the measurements are described; data on observed ice thickness, accumulated degree-days of frost, and average snow depths for 20-cm increments of ice growth are tabulated.--From CRREL.
Reports geological investigations is 1956-1957 to aid in dating the archeological finds. Quaternary sediments in a clay and a sand sequence are described; their stratigraphic relationships have been disrupted by soil movements resulting from freezing and thawing and from downslope creep. These soil movements, their mechanisms and rates postulated, apparently buried an organic layer containing artifacts progressively between two layers of marine clay. Due to overturning and mixing of layers of different ages, further complicated by a possible upthrust of the marine clay by glacier ice, the artifacts cannot be dated by geological means. From evidence indicating only one marine invasion coincident with glacial advance however, the archeological material is concluded to postdate the last Pleistocene glaciation.
The transfer of arctic territories from Great Britain to Canada in 1880, and some related matters, as seen in official correspondence
Arctic, v. 14, no. 1, Mar. 1961, p. 53-73
ASTIS record 9851
Reconstructs the negotiations of 1874-1880 on this transfer of territories not already under Canadian jurisdiction. Difficulties involved are discussed: determination of which territories were subject to the transfer especially in the islands north of the mainland; the most expedient means of effecting the transfer, by imperial act or order-in-council; etc. Delimitation of the northern and eastern boundaries of the transfer area was attempted, but the attempt ultimately abandoned.
During the summer of 1960 glaciological investigations were initiated on Gulkana Glacier in the central Alaska Range by members of the Department of Geology, University of Alaska. The programme is being supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation awarded to Dr. Troy L. Péwé, project supervisor and head, Department of Geology. Interior Alaska is a physiographic and climatic area heretofore almost neglected in glacier studies, in contrast to southeastern Alaska. The little work that has been done indicates that the glaciers in the interior deserve attention from the standpoint of present and historical fluctuations and studies of flow, ablation, and structure. At least two glaciers in the central Alaska Range are of special interest inasmuch as they have undergone advances as rapid, or more rapid than any others in the world. Gulkana Glacier lies on the south side of the Alaska Range 4 miles east of the Richardson Highway and about 135 miles southeast of Fairbanks. This glacier was chosen on account of its accessibility, size, structure, and because a 50-year photographic record of it is available. The glacier is 2.5 miles long and flows essentially to the south, the average width is about 1 mile. On the western side an ice fall divides the glacier roughly in half. The lower half is composed of three ice streams. The altitude of the terminus is 3950 feet and that of the ice in the cirque areas 6500 to 7000 feet. ...
This study was begun in 1959 and continued during the field season of 1960, when my wife Inger-Marie acted as assistant and we spent a little over 9 weeks in the field from early July to mid-September. Base camp was set up at the northern end of Eclipse Channel and from there several journeys of 3- to 8-day duration were made. North Aulatsivik Island and the area to the north toward Telliaosilk Fiord were studied. Lack of a canoe prevented the crossing of Eclipse River, and the area to the south of it could therefore not be visited. Study of the post-glacial emergence shows a discontinuous displacement of the strand-line. Three well-developed strand-lines were found at 40 to 56, 26 to 36, and 15.5 metres above sea-level. The two higher ones slope to N. 25° E. at a gradient of 1:1000 and 1:1650 respectively for the higher and lower. Isobase-directions for these two levels are found to be approximately 115-295°, and a map with contour lines showing the former sea-levels has been prepared. The lowest strand-line shows no tilt and is regarded as horizontal. An equal-distance diagram has been plotted and shows that a major transgression took place in northern Labrador prior to the formation of the lowest strand-line. At Port Burwell the sea level rose some 12 metres above the level it had during the formation of the next higher strand-line. Fossil marine molluscs were found in the base-camp area up to 32 metres above sea-level. A shell sample taken at 29 metres has been submitted for radio-carbon dating through the Geographical Branch, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys. The result will provide the first absolute date for any late- or post-glacial event on the Labrador coast. ...
In this interesting paper (Arctic 13:111-22) F. H. Fay suggests that polar bears and walrus contract trichinosis primarily from the flesh of ringed and bearded seals. I do not necessarily dispute this, but I do suggest that Fay unduly discounts other sources of infection. Bears are omnivorous scavengers and at times will eat, or try to eat, the most unlikely substances. Armstrong gives the stomach contents of a bear shot in Prince of Wales Strait as a few raisins, small pieces of pork fat, some tobacco leaves, and two pieces of common adhesive plaster. I have known them to chew into cans of engine oil. They walk long distances overland and along the shore and must frequently find carcasses of foxes, small mammals, and occasionally of other bears. That polar bears do not hesitate to eat the flesh of their own species is well known. Cases are mentioned by Edvard Bay and by Stefansson, and I have had caches of bear meat broken into and partly eaten by other bears. Occasionally cubs may be killed deliberately and eaten. In 1958-9 the Eskimos at Resolute reported that bears were eating trapped foxes, and during the same season five out of 25 fox diaphrams examined were infected with Trichinella. In 1949 on Prince Charles Island we saw places where bears had turned over stones, presumably in search of lemmings. When lemmings are really abundant it would be possible for a bear to obtain considerable numbers with very little effort. In the areas where ground squirrels are common it is not unlikely that these are also sometimes eaten. In the past when Eskimos abandoned their dead or gave them a very perfunctory burial, even humans may have been a source of infection. ...