Maps the vegetation zones north of 56 N. from field studies during 1954-59, and vertical air photographs. The zones are defined as geographical regions occupied by a number of plant communities and characterized by the prevalence of one, or by a particular proportion of two or more communities. Four are delineated for the Canadian Shield: tundra, forest tundra, open coniferous forest, closed coniferous forest, and four for the Hudson Bay Lowlands: transitional, moss muskeg, treeless bog, lowland complex. Vegetation, physiography, and photographic appearance (tone, texture, structure) are discussed for each zone; detailed descriptions of the vegetation are given in other papers of this series (supra, No. 47602, 54326).
Describes the causes, symptoms and differences between trichinosis and botulism; epidemiology and geographic distribution of type E botulism, including the Yukon and Southeast Alaska; outbreaks among Eskimos of Alaska, Northwest Territories and Labrador, and in Europe. The distribution of type E spores in Arctic Sea mud, and prevalence of outbreaks after consumption of raw seafood, etc. are discussed, and preventive measures recommended.
Considers the summer range (mapped) of this species based on shore observations 1953-1959, and information from Eskimos. The whales enter the Arctic Ocean in mid-June and move along the lead between pack and shore ice, reaching Wainwright and Barrow in late June or early July; a few get as far east as Barter Island, and some may follow the ice pack as it moves offshore. In early Aug. they start moving southwest, though some were still seen in mid-Sept. Local kills (few), feeding habits, etc. are also noted.
... The following report is based on samples of soil and water collected in a tundra area and is restricted to a listing of certain soil moulds found there. In August and September 1957 and June 1958 the junior author collected a series of water and soil samples from which a number of mould and yeast cultures were isolated. The samples were obtained while making a survey of enteric infections among the Eskimos of Southwestern Alaska. Specifically, sampling was carried out within a 6-mile radius of the Eskimo village of Napaskiak, about 400 miles west of Anchorage, near the head of Kuskokwim Bay. ... The region lies in the ecotone between the forest and tundra regions, and the sampling was carried out in areas described as "wet tundra" and "heath tundra". In this region the average annual precipitation is 19 inches, the climate approaches the marine type, with a mean annual temperature of 30°F., a monthly mean for July of 55°F. and for January of 6°F., and an average growing season of 102 days. With the climate as much cool-maritime as arctic, the soil fungi are probably low-temperature species adapted to a cold environment. The article by Williamson is illustrated by maps and photographs giving the geographic location and illustrating environmental conditions. In August 1957 five pond and three soil samples were collected for a preliminary investigation into the microorganisms of this area. In September 1957 six soil and pond samples, including four from the permafrost area on the west side of the Kuskokwim River, were collected and in June 1958 ten samples of soil and pond water. ...
The Arctic Institute of North America ... initiated the Devon Island Expedition 1960-1963, the objectives of which are: (1) A study of the relationships between the marine environment (Jones Sound), the Devon Island Ice Cap, and the atmosphere, with special regard to heat budget, energy flow, and moisture transfer. (2) A detailed investigation of the oceanography and marine biology of Jones Sound. (3) A detailed investigation of the archaeology, biology, and geology of Devon Island, together with other studies that may provide auxiliary information for objective (1). The main purpose of the 1960 expedition was to establish facilities and cache supplies to support the scientific program beginning in 1961. ... The party left Quebec City on July 31 on board C.M.S. d'Iberville and arrived off Cape Skogn, Devon Island on August 20. By August 24 a camp consisting of three prefabricated Jamesway buildings and stores for twenty people for 5 months was installed at 75°42'N. 84°26'W. An 18-mile tractor route to the edge of the ice cap was then laid out and 6 tons of ice cap station supplies were hauled to the top of a 1000-foot plateau at the beginning of that route. ... It was decided to cache the supplies at the edge of the plateau and to establish the ice cap station in the spring of 1961, when the ground will be frozen. ... The archaeologists located two previously unknown sites. The first, in the vicinity of the base camp, includes four or five houses, three temporary houses, and several caches. It is probably a late Thule site. The second site is located near the western tip of Cape Sparbo and has been tentatively named the "Inapok" site. It ... includes 9 houses tent rings, and a number of other structures. There are undoubtedly both Dorset and Thule, and perhaps pre-Dorset elements in the site. The entire site is well preserved and has yielded about 90 artifacts including Dorset blades, microblade points, burins, microburins, burin spalls, knives, and end blades. Oliver continued his study of arctic chironomids and other aquatic insects by extensive collecting at Resolute and on Devon Island. Harington measured over 60 musk ox skulls and made a comprehensive plant collection. The Devon Island Station will be reoccupied in late April 1961, at which time the ice cap station will be established. Studies in meteorology, glaciology, oceanography, marine biology, and geology will then begin. The archaeological work will continue with a detailed excavation of the "Inapok" site and further reconnaissance of the island.
During 1960 the Arctic Institute of North America continued the studies in Ellesmere Island that were begun in 1959 .... Twenty-three persons were actively engaged in field work between April 26 and September 24, 1960, but only seven men remained on the Ice Shelf throughout the season .... The main program was an evaluation of the mass balance of the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf and Ice Rise. A survey line from the mainland to the edge of the Ice Shelf, established in 1959 was resurveyed. R. W. Mason and his team installed a grid of markers for an aerial survey, but unfortunately the Royal Canadian Air Force Air Photography Wing was unable to make the necessary flights on account of poor weather conditions. General climatic observations and detailed micrometeorological studies were made on the Ice Shelf and Ice Rise by Lister and Sagar. In addition, level lines were run across the Ice Shelf, a 30-day tidal record was kept at the Shelf edge, and ablation/accumulation measurements made over a grid of 70 stakes. R. Ragle of Dartmouth College directed the coring of some deep holes in the ice of both the Ice Shelf and the Ice Rise at four locations. The cores obtained were flown out to Dartmouth College for fabric analysis. A detailed geomorphological study of the coast of Ellesmere Island opposite Ward Hunt Island and of Ward Hunt Island was made by Dr. J. Lyons. The N.C.E.L. [U.S. Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory] party under D. E. Well conducted studies of the ice surface with special attention to factors affecting suitability for aircraft landings. Although few quantitative results of the work are available as yet, snow accumulation was found to be more than 50 per cent greater than in a comparable period in 1959. The summer of 1960 was relatively warm, but the net loss of the ice by melting and run-off only equalled that of 1959. There is some indication that the radiation regime of the area controls the amount of summer melt. The results of ice core analysis and the geomorphological studies may help to throw some light on the history of the Ice Shelf, and the combined studies are intended to evaluate the critical conditions that govern the growth and breakup of shelf ice in the region.