Describes the seasonal activities and movements of Indians around Lake Mistassini, Quebec (51 N, 73 30 W), on the basis of 13 months' field work in 1953-54. Their fur-trapping, hunting and fishing economy and the climatic conditions necessitate periodic changes in occupation and habitation. Eight such periods are distinguished: summer, fall travel, fall hunt, winter camp construction, early winter trapping, late winter hunt, spring trapping, and spring travel. These periods, implicit (though not explicit) in Mistassini discussion of their activities, conform only in part to the six climatic seasons recognized by the Indians.
A study of nine forms of wild geese in three arctic areas and in Illinois. Following an introduction on the use of own feathers for lining the nest, and earlier work on this behaviour, author deals with the occurrence and characteristics of the incubation patch in geese; and evidence of former incubation in wintering birds. The relation of the patch to egg laying and to hormonal factor as well as its value in age determination are discussed.
... The activity engendered by the International Geophysical Year 1957-8 provided an opportunity to obtain suitable rock specimens from the antarctic continent, and the author was able to visit two localities in Victoria Land. At Cape Hallett (72°S., 171°E.) the prominent Cenozoic volcanics were sampled, but the Palaeozoic sediments of the Robertson Bay group, quite highly metamorphosed in this region, were rejected as unlikely to provide reliable data on the ancient magnetic field. In the Ferrar Glacier region (78°S., 161°E.), samples were collected from the late Palaeozoic / early Mesozoic Beacon sandstone, and from the extensive Mesozoic dolerite sills intrusive within the sandstone series. The remanent magnetizations of the rocks collected were measured at King's College, University of Durham. A sensitive astatic magnetometer was employed to measure the weaker magnetization of the sedimentary rocks and a simpler instrument was used for the more strongly magnetized igneous specimens. Mean directions of magnetization and corresponding pole positions were calculated, and the 95 per cent level of confidence estimated in the usual way. ... Uncertainties in geological age and - for the Cape Hallett lavas - of the sampling procedure, preclude any precise statements. However, some general conclusions may be drawn. Here, as elsewhere, reversed directions of magnetization occur and may be interpreted as representative of reversals of the main magnetic field of the earth. Cenozoic rocks appear to have been magnetized in a mean field not essentially different from that of a geocentric dipole aligned with the present axis. Older rocks are magnetized in a direction significantly different from that of the present mean magnetic field. This may be interpreted as evidence of polar wandering, implying a polar movement of some 30 degrees since the later part of the Mesozoic era. The data are perhaps too sparse to admit of a discussion of continental drift.
Discusses the effects of snow cover on the behavior, migration and species survival of caribou, from field studies in southern Mackenzie and Keewatin Districts during the winter 1957-58. Snow observation records were taken at 114 stations, caribou distribution was plotted during low altitude flights, and ground observations made of their behavior in relation to snow conditions. Correlations were found between areas of heavy caribou concentration and the snow hardness, density and thickness. Caribou appear to have sensitivity thresholds: approx. 50 gm/sq cm hardness for forest snow and 500 gm/sq cm for lake snow; approx. 0.19-0.20 density for forest snow and 0.25-0.30 for lake snow; and approx. 60 cm thinkness. When these thresholds are exceeded, the animals move to areas of softer, lighter and thinner snow. Location of the winter range and the timing, direction, speed and routes of annual migrations are intimately related to snow cover characteristics. Protection of vegetation in areas of favorable snow conditions may be of prime importance to the survival of caribou. Further research is needed.