Outlines development and present status of observation program carried out by the authors since 1950. Field procedure consisted of establishment of base stations and a calibration standard for all gravity meters used, and setting up subsidiary base stations. Observations were made at 5- to 10-mile intervals along the highways, the Alaska Railroad between Fairbanks and Seward, and on an 800-mile trip down the Lewes and Yukon Rivers from Whitehorse to Circle. Free Air and Bouguer anomalies were determined, the latter being computed for selected densities to obtain maximum geological value. "Reasonably accurate regional anomaly maps" are presented for Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 4 and for southeastern Alaska; a generalized geologic map of Alaska with Bouguer anomalies (density=2.67) superimposed, indicates a great gravity low near Cook Inlet, and positive anomalies over the Aleutians, on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, and near Nenana. Available basic geodetic data are indicated; need for additional observations is stressed.
Describes the establishment and supply of two camps for this United States IGY micrometeorological and glacier-movement survey program, 1957-58. The McCall, an accessible valley glacier in the Romanzof Mts., eastern Brooks Range, northern Alaska, was chosen for the study during a reconnaissance flight in Aug. 1956. Transport was by air: prefabricated buildings, 34 tons of fuel and 18 tons of supplies and rations for the four-man party were parachuted from U.S. Air Force C-119 cargo planes during the 18-month program. Personnel, scientific instruments, and delicate apparatus were flown in by ski-equipped light planes; the glacier surface made an excellent landing field.
Describes in detail this glacier in the Romanzof Mts., Brooks Range, northern Alaska, studied during the McCall Glacier Project, 1957-58. The crescent-shaped body of ice, approx. 8 km long, 640 m wide and 1,450 m high, has three cirques and a well defined drainage basin. From the confluence of the cirques, the ice drops in eight broad steps to the terminus. The hummocky ice surface is mantled with dust, rock and boulders which melt into the ice, causing cavities. Surface runoff from the cirques appears to flow into two main outlets: a marginal stream down the right side of the glacier, and circular fissure, located at the head of the glacier trunk. There are two principal areas of crevassing other than the ice faces above the cirques and the bergschrunds. The largest crevasse explored was 5 m wide, 60 m long and (estimated) 25 m deep. Blue bands and dirt-filled shear planes are common. Data collected include continuous records of long- and short-wave energy gain and loss, air temperatures, and wind speed. Investigations are noted of stratigraphy of snow, firn behavior, temperature gradients down to 100 m, and ice motion.
Describes mainly the glacial geology of this V-shaped valley, approx. 10 km long and, 800 m wide, cut by McCall Glacier (69 20 N, 144 15 W) and Jago River valley in northern Alaska. The bedrock consists of north-dippping sediments of Upper Mississippian Lisburne limestone and the Permian Sadlerochit formation which abut against a granite batholith. Characteristic deposits of five glacial advances were examined by the author during the McCall Glacier Project in 1957-58, and their sequence correlated with that of the central Brooks Range. Beginning with the earliest, they correspond to the Anaktuvuk or Sagavanirktok, Itkillik, Echooka, Alapah Mountain and Fan Mountain glaciations. Some patterned ground features are described; also an aufeis field from which water was issuing in April, far in advance of the ablation season.
Contains a biography, originally prepared for Stefansson's Encyclopedia Arctica, of this British explorer: his early life, polar explorations and later government positions not related to the Arctic. His five northern expeditions are cited: that with Capt. John Ross in 1818, those he commanded in 1819-20, 1821-23, and 1824-25; his discoveries (several water bodies and islands) in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and his last expedition, in 1827, an attempt to reach the North Pole over the pack or through open water from Spitsbergen.
On December 31, 1958 Rear Admiral Colbert retired from the Directorship of the Institute's Washington Office, a post he had held since February 1952 and to the responsibilities of which he brought the fruits of a long life of scientific and administrative distinction. The Washington Office had been established scarcely a year when its then Director, Lincoln Washburn, gave up his close association with the Institute to carry forward his long-time interest in geomorphological field research. The task of replacing him in the Institute family seemed an impossible one, yet, by great good fortune, his leaving us coincided with the retirement of Admiral Colbert from government service as Director of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Because of his many seasons of scientific work in Alaska and Alaskan waters and his interest in arctic oceanography and related disciplines, Lee Colbert was persuaded to apply his wide experience to the needs of the young and growing Arctic Institute. The prestige and respect he had earned through association with a wide circle of scientific and administrative colleagues in Washington immediately redounded to the Institute's credit. The polar regions were at that time becoming intensely spotlighted, and Admiral Colbert was able to bring to our objectives the interest and wise counsel of many individuals and agencies, the benefits of which are embodied in our present research program. It is fair to say also that the "meetings of minds" that he stimulated enhanced not only our own scientific objectives but served to acquaint our counsellors with each others' programs, thus providing a useful catalytic function and the strengthening of arctic programs carried out by other national groups. To the sea and its problems Admiral Colbert brought eager enthusiasm, and his efforts in our interests and the expansion of our long-time association with the Office of Naval Research and in the Institute's advisory role in the research programs of the ArcticResearch Laboratory at Point Barrow, Alaska. Always a strong advocate of fundamental tools for the scientist, he gave much of himself to the problems of compilation and publication of the Arctic Bibliography, seven volumes of which reached the scientific community during his directorship. No less was he instrumental in the appearance of the Institute's volume, Arctic Research, to which he contributed the chapters "Geophysical Research in Alaska" and "Tidal Data in the North American Arctic". If these contributions are tangible monuments to his devotion to Institute affairs, the intangibles must be the gratitude of more than one hundred and sixty principal investigators sponsored by the Institute whose field programs assisted and guided to completion. Nor did the Admiral's encouragement benefit only the senior investigators, for these mature scientists he took somewhat for granted. Far more he relished the opportunity to develop the talents of younger men and to steer an ever increasing flow of scientific potential toward the future needs of polar research. Those of us in the Institute who have had the pleasure of close and happy association with Admiral Colbert will wish him well in his "retirement", for we know that there is no such word in his vocabulary. Rather we relish the prospect of his wise counsel and active interest in Institute affairs for many years to come.