Preliminary results are reported of field studies 1955-56 by the U.S. Air Force Cambridge Research Center, the Hydrographic Office and SIPRE on the general physical properties of sea ice; methods of measurement are described. Characteristics of sea water during the freezing period are outlined: formation, structure, and salinity of the initial ice cover, formation and characteristics of infiltrated snow-ice, growth of the ice and influencing factors, density of the ice at various periods, and crack formation are discussed. Data on the salinity of sea ice formed during during wave action and that of sheet-ice, hourly averages of air and ice temperatures at various levels, snow and slush density and thickness, observed slush levels and theoretical water levels are shown. Salinity of ice before and after the slush layer froze, and that of deteriorating ice , salinity of ice vs. ice thickness, thickness of ice versus degree-days, the density of the ice, and measured ice densities vs. theoretical density of air-free sea ice at -15 C are figured and discussed. The orientation of sea ice c-axes and of infiltrated snow-ice c-axes are diagrammed.--From SIPRE.
Maps and describes features indicating marine transgression and ice movement in the area approx. 64-71 N, 74-88 W, viz.: raised beaches, marine shell localities, perched boulders, glacial striae, drumlinoid ridges, glacial flutings, craig and tail structures, eskers, and directions of ice movement. The maximum extent of the last marine submergence is considered and the presumed extent mapped. Elevations in feet of raised beaches and marine shell localities are given.
Discusses, on basis of studies in northern Alaska, soil forming processes in arctic regions and considers the relation between vegetation and soils and problems of classification and mapping. Tundra soils are poorly drained, mineral in nature, and underlain by permafrost at depths of 1-2 ft Arctic brown soils form under free drainage, are mineral in character, and confined to ridges, terrace edges, and stabilized dunes. The active layer in such soils is usually deep. Downslope movement and frost action tend to disrupt any orderly morphology in both wet and well-drained sites. Moisture conditions in arctic soils exert a marked selective influence on vegetation.--from SIPRE.
Account of germination tests made with the aim of ascertaining seed viability of plants from the arctic tundra of Alaska (near Umiat, 69 22 N, 152 10 W) and the alpine tundra of Wyoming. A greater proportion of the latter germinated (of 26 species, 21 i.e. 80%; of 36 arctic species, 22 or 61%); though individual species from both tundras showed a high percentage of germination. Conditions affecting germination, influence of light and darkness, wetness, etc., are analyzed.
Two articles are included in this edition of Northern News. The first is "Glacial-geomorphological research in the Howells Valley and the watershed district of central Quebec-Labrador" by E. Darbyshire who concluded that the ice sheet in this area melted to form thin, separate masses occupying the valleys between the ridges of the Labrador Trough and that there is no evidence for ice-dammed lakes. The second article is "Biological studies in Ungava during 1958" by P.M. Driver.