Contains account of a Canadian Geological Survey reconnaissance of western Ellesmere and eastern Axel Heiberg Island carried out during Apr.-Sept. 1956. The various journeys from Eureka by dog sled, on foot, and by powered canoe are reported in detail with information on the snow and ice conditions encountered and mention made of an unexpected shore ice condition on the east side of Eureka Sound. Eskimo remains were found on both islands: tent rings, animal traps, sled runners, and a tomb. Wildlife observed is listed in appendix with note of numbers, localities, etc. Geological results are outlined and the previous geologists' work on rocks of Ordovician, Silurian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary ages are described. Special emphasis is given to structural features, Tertiary rocks affected by deformation cover a greater area than formerly believed and lie in a belt east of rocks affected by Paleozoic deformation. Thrust faulting, unconformities, and gypsum piercements are considered.
Surface rolls are characteristic features of both the Ellesmere ice shelf and the floating ice islands derived from it. These surface features are described and their origin and evolution discussed. Various theories of origin are considered which involve such forces as pressure from the polar pack, movement of glaciers, temperature variations, tidal movements and wind. Of these, wind action appears the most likely to have caused the rolls, and it is suggested that their development was analogous to the formation of seif dunes in desert. "They should be regarded as fossil snow dunes that have been perpetuated by the annual drainage of melt-water."
Reports the discovery of a kelp bed near Point Barrow and describes its composition, both red and brown algae and associated fauna: a few polychaetous annelids, arthropods and six fishes, one, Enophrys diceraus new to arctic waters and kelp beds are rare in arctic Alaska waters limited in species and in number of individuals. The general poverty of marine algae is thought due to the prevalence of sediments north of Alaska and to silting effects by sea ice in winter.