Of ten ducks, geese and swans known to breed in southern Baffin, seven were observed by the writers, June 14-Aug. 1953, near the end of Frobisher Bay; Canada geese, snow geese, blue geese, old-squaws, common eiders, king eiders, and red-breasted mergansers are described: numbers seen, the young, physical appearance of adults and young.
Unstable conditions (in which air temperature decreases with increasing height at more than 1 C per 100 m) were recorded (to height of 30 m) at Eielson Air Force Base near Fairbanks, Alaska, during Jan.-Feb. 1954, as part of Alaska ice fog investigations. Weather conditions producing surface instability are (in order of importance in the Arctic): periods of strong insolation when snow surface is in bright sun; periods of heavy overcast with an over-riding warm air mass; periods of ice fog. Observations of each condition are discussed; also frequencies at which various lapse rate conditions occurred at low levels in Jan.-Feb. Instability due to ice fog is of minor importance in arctic climatology generally, as ice fog and its associated lapse rates are restricted to urban areas.
Description of a traverse on foot made by the writer and F. Muller, Aug. 2-12, 1953, during the Danish Expedition to East Greenland, led by Lauge Koch. Starting from the head of Frigg Fjord at approx. 83 09 N. 35 W. they traveled north to the Arctic Ocean and east to Kap Morris Jesup at 83 39 N, 34 17 W Observations were made on geology, fauna, flora, and weather conditions. On the arctic coast (about 700 km from the North Pole) a closed moss vegetation and about 20 different higher plants were found. Brief summary of the geology is given. A more detailed report on the trip and observations is AB. No. 39873.
Based on observations of the writer and other members of the eight-man Bylot Island Expedition, June-July 1954. The expedition, sponsored by the Arctic Institute of North America and the New York Zoological Society, studied flora, fauna, and ecological problems from a base on the southwest coast, across the sound from Pond Inlet on northern Baffin. Dominant vegetation of this area is Salix arctica, Dryas integrifolia, and Luzula confusa. Seventeen mammal species are listed as occurring on the island; notes on abundance and location seen, specific, common, and Eskimo names are given. Those mammals not directly observed by expedition members were identified accurately by Eskimos of the area.
Microrelief produced by sea ice grounding in the Chukchi Sea near Barrow, Alaska
Arctic, v. 8, no. 3, 1955, p. 177-186, ill., figures
Contributions - Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, n.s. no. 845
ASTIS record 9777
In the summer of 1954 the writer studied the microrelief off Barrow, Alaska, to determine the effective range of grounding of the polar pack ice. ... The microrelief studied here is not the same as that described by Carsola (1954) for deeper waters of the outer continental shelf to the northwest of the Barrow area. ... The traverses generally showed irregular depth fluctuations of 8 feet or less over distances of 25 to 50 feet, superimposed on a very gently sloping bottom. ... Microrelief is best developed between depths of 20 to 80 feet, where it is often 6 feet, and in one case reached 12 feet. Moderate microrelief usually extends to a depth of 100 feet ... Before accepting the hypothesis of pack ice grounding to explain the microrelief a number of alternate hypotheses were considered. These were: residual features of thawed permafrost, slump topography, current scouring, and sand waves. ... Pack ice grounding could cause the development of microrelief in a way that explains all the observed features. ... The sharpness of the microrelief and the scale are what one would expect if an average ice floe (4-6 feet thick and 20-100 feet in diameter) were up-ended by the pressure of other floes and driven into the bottom. The abrupt end of microrelief at 100 feet can be explained as the maximum depth at which pack ice grounds. ... It is suggested that, on the basis of the sharpness of the microrelief, grounding is most frequent between 20 and 80 feet. Grounding below this depth is probably less frequent and occurs with less bottom gouging than grounding within this depth range. ... Subsequent to the completion of this paper MacGinite (1955) has made a number of comments on sea ice grounding. His observations agree with those of this writer, but are of a more general nature. MacGinitie's winter observations are of special interest ....
The items include: 1) a summary of archaeological investigations on the Firth River, Yukon Territory by Richard S. MacNeish; 2) details on the founding of the Arktisk Institut (Copenhagen) by Helge Larsen; 3) Charles Richardson's notes on a trip to Banks Island as part of the joint Canada-United States Beaufort Sea expedition; 4) a summary of ornithological observations made by E.O. Höhn in the Anderson River-Liverpool Bay region, N.W.T.; 5) information on a symposium on Arctic meteorological problems to be held in Oslo, Norway during the first week of July 1956; and 6) errata for vol. 8, no. 2.