Contains account based on published Russian material. An historical outline of expeditions to the central Arctic between 1937 and 1950 is given. The 1954 expedition, undertaken by the Soviet government and directed by V.F. Burkhanov, consisted of two drift stations (central Arctic station directed by A.F. Treshnikov, eastern Arctic by E.I. Tolstikov), "The High Latitudes Air Expedition" (under M.E. Ostrekin), and regular meteorological and ice observation flights of "flying laboratories" along the edge of the expedition area. Expedition started in Mar. 1954. Establishment on the ice pack of drift stations North Pole-3 and North Pole-4, their living conditions and equipment are described, with illustrations. The air expedition made about 12 landings in the North Pole region and completed its work in July 1954. Little is known of the meteorological flights. Personnel connected with the expedition are listed. An outline of scientific results in oceanography and hydrography (with description of the Lomonosov Range and other topographic features of the Arctic Basin floor), distribution and drift of ice, meteorology, and terrestrial magnetism is given.
Contains results of observations and collections made by the writers June 14-Aug. 22, 1953, near the Royal Canadian Air Force station at the head of Frobisher Bay. Nesting and feeding behavior is described. Incubation period was found to be about 12 days, fledgling period 12-14 days. Description and data on hatching success of 14 nests are given. The pipit was least successful in nesting of all birds of the Frobisher region in summer 1953. Principal losses, of well-developed nestlings, occurred during the third week of July when bad weather created an insect shortage. Four adult specimens collected are described.
Contains summary based on data collected in summers 1933 to 1952 by personnel of the U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Hydrographic Office, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of Washington, and Canadian Navy, in Bering Sea and Strait, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas. Submarine topography, bottom sediments, horizontal and vertical temperature and salinity structure, characteristics also origin and movement of water masses, currents, and ice conditions are briefly described.
In Nikolski a community of 56 Aleuts on Umnak Island, the large wooden dory, introduced by Americans, has superseded the bidarky, traditional one-man skin boat. Social and economic changes accompanying this shift are described. A self-sufficient economy based on sea hunting, traditional skills, and cooperative effort is replaced by individual dependence on cash income from outside, often unreliable sources. The breakdown in family mores and disintegration of village life is stressed. The study is based on information gathered in summer 1952 when author lived at Nikolski with a party of anthropologists led by W.S. Laughlin, supported by Arctic Institute of North America and University of Oregon Graduate School.
Observations by U.S. scientists of submarine topography, temperature, and circulation pattern of the Arctic Basin, made during Operation Skijump I and II (1951-1952, north of Alaska) and from ice island T-3, are noted. Conclusions regarding the Lomonosov Range are compared with Russian results.