Preliminary data from Saskatchewan Glacier, Alberta, Canada
Arctic, v. 7, no. 1, June 1954, p. 3-26, ill., figures
Contribution - California Institute of Technology. Division of Geological Sciences, no. 678
ASTIS record 9730
"Work on the glacier was initiated in the summer of 1952. Velocity measurements were made from 52 stations on the glacier surface. Reduction of the triangulation data is incomplete but preliminary measurements indicate that englacial movement is oblique to the surface. The max. velocity (1.2 ft/day) was observed at mid-glacier, one mi. below the firn line. Isolated reverse movements were also noted. Five different types of crevasses observed on the glacier are described. Sedimentary layering, flow foliation, faults, crystal fabrics and miscellaneous investigations are discussed."--SIPRE.
Strong increase in temperature and water transport in the Gulf Stream-North Atlantic Drift system during the recent climatic amelioration (1915 to about 1945) has been most effective in the northeast part of the system (Iceland, Faeroes, Barents Sea, Svalbard) and West Greenland. Increase in flow of Atlantic water northward is, however, balanced by increased southward flow of polar water. East Greenland and the Canadian Eastern Arctic, influenced by the polar outlets, have undergone little warming. A short period of climatic warming in the 1880s had more effect on the Ungava Bay region, and probably the whole Eastern Arctic, than the recent fluctuation. Biological evidence of this earlier warming is discussed. A lesser increase in current transport may have been involved than in the recent climatic amelioration.
On the basis of studies of botanists and his own on arctic birds, the author suggests a number of refugia where, during glaciation, speciation of mammals took place in geographic isolation. These refugia are reconstructed on the basis of closely related mammalian species, including the most complex case, that of the caribou forms.
Remarks on the reproduction, sex ratio, and life expectancy of the varying lemming, Dicrostonyx Groenlandicus, in nature and captivity
Arctic, v. 7, no. 1, June 1954, p. 36-48, tables
ASTIS record 9733
Contains results of a study between Sept. 1949 and Sept. 1953, of a colony started from 16 Greenland varying lemmings and one Mackenzie varying lemming (D.g. kilangmiutak). Records of the colony are compared with field observations and more detailed work done on related genera. Subjects discussed include: age of sexual maturity, litter size, gestation period and litter frequency, sex ratios, care of young, life expectancy and disease.
The items include: 1) an update on the position of ice island T1; 2) details of the first official census in the Northwest Territories (i.e., N.W.T, Nunavut, Nunavik, and the James Bay region of Québec) which recorded 3,215 persons; 3) a note on the population of Eskimo people including those of Canada, Alaska, Greenland, and the Soviet Arctic; 4) information on the summer 1953 expedition to north Ellesmere Island to carry out glaciological and geological investigations; and 5) a request from Lieut. G.J. Raymond for Arctic postal information for an Arctic postal history and postmarks study.
On 13 July 1953 Ben Battle was accidentally drowned in Baffin Island while returning from a lone walk near the Base Camp of the Arctic Institute's 1953 expedition. Walter Ravenhill Brown Battle was born on 23 December 1919 in Leeds, England, and educated at Leeds Grammar School, and at the University of Leeds, graduating in geography in 1949. Having registered as a conscientious objector he spent most of the duration of the war working on English farms. Ben was early interested in mountains and in climbing, and with this background it was natural that he should become a keen glaciologist. In 1948 and 1949 he went to east Greenland with the Danish Pearyland expeditions. Then from 1949 to 1953 he carried out research for a doctoral degree of the University of Cambridge, on the formation of corries. He tested the validity of the hypothesis that freeze thaw action within a bergschrund results in corrie erosion by gradual shattering of the rock wall. During this time he took temperature recordings in bergschrunds in Norway and Switzerland, and made laboratory experiments, beam-testing rocks which had been exposed to alternate freezing and thawing. In 1952 he was awarded the Senior McGill University-Arctic Institute Carnegie Fellowship, and he and his wife, Barbara, went to live in Montreal. He continued his studies on the Institute's 1953 Baffin Island expedition. His results indicate that it is unlikely that freeze-thaw action in bergschrunds can cause corrie formation. A number of his glaciological papers have been published in scientific journals. He firmly believed in the application of more experimental and quantitative research in geomorphology. Ben was in many ways a man of unusual and firm ideals, many of them at variance with contemporary society, but springing from his deep humanism. Ever cheery and open hearted, he delighted in his fellow men, and so got on famously with them. To have him as a companion, in city life, in winter skiing, and on the Baffin expedition was a constant pleasure. For the writer it will always be a joy to relive these memories again.