Northern vegetational problems include primarily those of flora and of plant communities. A "comprehensive, descriptive flora, with keys and illustrations" has not been developed for boreal North America, but published regional lists are noted here. The study of plant communities must be correlated with climate (including microclimate and climatic change), soils, and the evolution of land forms. Training of field workers is discussed, and examples are given of problems met in the field. An outline of problems derived from the study follows the text.
The Arctic and sub-Arctic are defined in terms of marine environment. Differences in biological productivity between the areas are discussed, with consideration of the chemical and physical factors involved. Plankton production and biology, benthonic and littoral fauna, and fishes and marine animals present problems related to North American fisheries and Eskimo needs. In each case problems are listed for future study, a discussion of systematic and zoogeographic problems closing the report. Maps show (1) zones of the marine environment, (2) bathymetry, and (3) major currents of northern seas. Diagram illustrates the biological cycle in arctic and subarctic marine zones.
Contains a study of mammals of arctic Alaska, mainly from the Brooks Range, each species discussed in terms of holarctic distribution. The information was obtained during investigations by the Animal-borne Disease Branch of the Arctic Health Research Center, Anchorage, Alaska, during which 4,500 mammals were collected. Alaska has about 30 widely distributed species, many circumboreal. These and their varieties are described in systematic order. The grizzly or brown bear wolf, arctic hoary marmot, ground squirrel, tundra vole, narrow-skulled or gregarious vole and caribou are treated in some detail, and the relationship of the caribou to Alaskan Eskimo economy is described. The Romanzof Mts. of the Brooks Range and Arctic Village near the southern limits of the Brooks Range on the East Chandalar River are briefly described. Photographs show skulls, tables give cranial measurements, and maps show Alaskan distribution of various species.
A re-writing for English-speaking readers, of the author's Barrtradsarternas polara grans pa norra halvklotet, 1952, q.v., with minor changes in the maps.
The items include: 1) news from the Royal Geographical Society that the Founder's Medal was awarded to P.D. Baird (AINA's director in Montreal) and the Patron's Medal awarded to Count Eigel Knuth; 2) information on the Banks Island coastal survey party; 3) information on the Ellesmere Ice Shelf party; 4) a report by Keith R. Greenaway on the ice islands observed on R.C.A.F. polar flights; 5) details of the "Blue Dolphin" Labrador expedition to Hamilton Inlet and Lake Melville, Labrador; 6) notes by M.C. Findlay on sheep farming in Greenland; 7) an account by W. Blake of the studies on Grinnell Glacier, Baffin Island; and 8) information on a new carbon drawing ink developed in Tulsa, Oklahoma that may be useful in northern regions as it is not damaged by freezing or thawing.
Richard Bøgvad, a Fellow of the Arctic Institute since December 1950, died suddenly from a heart attack on 7 August 1952 when on a mountain trip near Ivigtut in south Greenland. Sidney Richard Emil Bøgvad was born in Frederiksberg, Copenhagen, on 21 November 1897. In 1924 he began his lifelong association with the Kryolitselskabet Øresund A/S (the Cryolite Company in Copenhagen, then called Øresunds chemiske Fabriker) in a clerical position. He was generously permitted to spend part of his time on studies at the University of Copenhagen, and received his degree in 1931. Even before his graduation he had been employed in research at the company's laboratory, and in 1929 he was sent to northeast Greenland to investigate a reported occurrence of cryolite. Various circumstances forced the expedition to winter in the Arctic, and Bøgvad took the opportunity to carry out geological field work in little-known areas of northeast Greenland. After 1931 Bøgvad, who later became Chief Geologist at the Cryolite Company, spent practically every summer in southwest Greenland examining the cryolite at Ivigtut and searching for new deposits in the vicinity. Bøgvad was one of the few Danish geologists who was connected with the mining industry, and it was therefore both natural and fortunate that he should take part in the founding of Grønlands geologiske Undersøgelse (Geological Survey of Greenland) in 1946. Later he became one of the geological advisers to the company which is now exploring the lead deposits at Mestersvig in east Greenland. The small mining industry on the Faroe Islands has also profited from Bøgvad's advice. As well as being an able and conscientious economic geologist, Bøgvad was deeply interested in pure science. This led him to take part in Dr. Knud Rasmussen's Sixth and Seventh Thule expeditions to southeast Greenland, in the summers of 1932 and 1933, respectively. Bøgvad published a large number of articles on new minerals, most of them from the cryolite deposit, and on geological subjects of a more general character. Richard Bøgvad will always be remembered for his upright character and for the high quality of his work.