The decision of the Board of Governors of the Institute, in early 1945, to ask Lincoln Washburn to take on the Executive Directorship, proved a wise and a happy one. Dr. Washburn, known to his very large circle of friends as "Linc", came to Montreal in the same year and set up office in the Institute headquarters. During his six years as Executive Director, he saw the headquarters moved twice, from the top floor of the administration wing of the McGill University Arts Building to the Ethnological Museum, then housed in the Medical Building, and from there to the present offices in Bishop Mountain House. He left Montreal in March 1951 to establish the Washington Office, and in this present year he has given up his close administrative connection with the Institute for other work in which he will continue his great interest in furthering arctic research. The Institute is very greatly indebted to Dr. Washburn; it was he, more than anyone else, who set the pattern of its early development. His great devotion to his work, his gift for detail and his thoroughness have constantly amazed his associates, and it is to these qualities of his that the sound foundation of the organization can surely be ascribed. His work for the Institute did not appear to cease day or night, as witness the many guests on social occasions in his home who found themselves suddenly involved in impromptu committee meetings in the corner. Much of the financial endowment which started the work of the Institute, and which still carries it on, was due to Dr. Washburn's energy and enterprise. His tact and modesty gained him firm friends in both capitals, but it was in Montreal that he became perhaps better known to Institute friends than anywhere else, especially to the Arctic Associates of Montreal. He became a well-known figure at McGill University, and there was a real feeling of loss when he moved south to Washington. No appreciation of the work of Dr. Washburn, in Institute matters, could omit warm and special tributes to his wife. Tahoe Washburn was an important member of the team; her charm, cheerfulness, verve and warmth will never be forgotten in Montreal. She accompanied her husband on several of his northern expeditions, and she became known to many as the hostess of the Washburn home on Westmount Mountain, which came to be a natural Mecca for arctic people going through the city; a sort of unofficial hostelry of infinite hospitality. There are remarkably few United States citizens who achieve real understanding of Canadian problems and points of view, even though they may live in Canada for many years. The Washburns are two who undoubtedly did, and the importance of that understanding to the welfare of the Institute can scarcely be over-rated. (It was even said that Linc Washburn was gradually changing his pronunciation of the very word "Institute"!). From the standpoint of those in Montreal it was a great pity that for various good reasons he felt he had to return to the United States, and in so doing had to relinquish the Executive Directorship. It goes without saying that he will remain in continued close association with the Institute, which will continue to benefit from his experience and wise help.
Contains a presentation of the problem of a disrupted native economy, to be solved by immediate assimilation, or alternately by putting Eskimo life as closely as possible on its original basis. Stressing the advantages of the latter, the author analyzes in detail the poor condition of marine mammal life and hunting; also, similarly, the inadequacy of fresh-water fishes and fisheries to serve as economic basis for Eskimos of Ungava region. He suggests that developing marine fisheries in the Port Burwell area could solve the problem and recommends several measures, including educational, to place the Eskimo economy on a healthy footing.
Contains an account of observations and excavations made at Jorgen Bronlunds Fjord and other localities during the Danish Peary Land Expedition 1947-50, led by the author. The area is described and characterized as "a transit region for Eskimo migrations from arctic North America to northern East Greenland." Remnants (especially the umiak) of a neo-Eskimo Whale Hunting Culture found at Herlufsholm (ca. 85 35 N, 20 15 W) are discussed and related to finds in Alaska. Belonging to the Dorset Culture, 31 sites with dwellings, tent rings, fire places, meat caches and fox traps were excavated. Numerous flint and bone artifacts are described, illustrated, and correlated with finds from Norton Sound, and the Brooks Range in Alaska, and from southwestern Labrador. The tent sites (stone rings) are closely analyzed and from them conclusions inferred as to the extent, economy, and life of that culture. The range of Dorset known localities is greatly extended by this expedition. More information "on this strange old Eskimo culture...is needed for further investigations on the subject of the origin of the whole Eskimo culture." Bibliography (29 items).
"The influence of soil frost on plants and of plants on soil frost is discussed. Permafrost can not be penetrated by living roots, and if at a shallow depth, it imposes limitations on the anchoring functions of tree roots in shallow soils. Frozen ground inhibits lateral movement of soil water and prevents downward percolation. Sites for vegetation are destroyed by progressive thawing of permafrost. Soil surfaces are in places rendered unavailable to plants because of soil stirring, sorting, and transport by frost action as manifested by polygons, pitted tundra, and soil stripes. Plants affect soil frost phenomena by exercising controls on the thermal regime of the soils. Vegetation shields the soil from maximum penetration of heat by shading, decreasing air circulation, retaining moisture in and just above the soil, and by intercepting rain. It is shown that mosses provide a cooling effect, because of low thermal conductivity, large waterholding capacity, and high hygroscopicity. Extensive root systems tend to impede downward percolation of water, thus restricting thaw. Applications of soil frost predictions, on agriculture, forestry, and construction are considered, and future investigations are proposed."--SIPRE. Bibliography (31 items).
Contains an introduction by Trevor Lloyd, on the changes now taking place among Eskimos of Greenland, and on the author's part in education there. Then follows Dean Bugge's presentation of Eskimos' psychology; the "closed" and "open" types among them; their emotional life, fatalism, conservatism, especially in their language, love of nature and children and gaiety; to understand and preserve these positive traits, whilst planning reforms, is the author's plea. This paper is translated from one originally prepared for the Greenland Society (and pub. in its Aarsskrift 1950, p. 136-44) and modified slightly for a wider public.
The articles include: 1) information on the hydrographic work carried out by the Cancolim expedition in the Canadian Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf; 2) an account of the first Greenland Provincial Council election by N.O. Christensen and Trevor Lloyd, reprinted from Arctic Circular, v. 4, 1951, p. 83-85; 3) T.P. Bank's description of the last four years of anthropological and botanical expeditions from the University of Michigan to the Aleutian Islands; 4) a list of the 18 projects studied in 1951 from the Arctic Research Laboratory, Point Barrow; 5) the founding of the Stefansson Library at Dartmouth College, New Hampshire; 5) the potential use of lichen woodlands in Labrador for domestic reindeer grazing by A.E. Porsild; 6) the announcement of an essay competition run by the quarterly scientific review Endeavour; and 7) a notice that a complete set of Meddelelser om Grønland is for sale by an Arctic Institute Associate.