Contains an account of the biological nature of the mammals and their relationship to the local Eskimos, based on field observations (particularly in the Tulugak Lake area, 68 20 N, 151 26 W) made during 1949-51 in connection with a study of animal-borne diseases. It consists of 3 parts: (1) description of the country (physiography; climate; vegetation); (2) the people (physical characteristics, history, dwellings, clothing, food, transportation, hunting implements, etc., of an inland group of nomadic caribou hunters, now becoming adapted to white man's culture); (3) Brooks Range mammals, offering extensive data (including local Eskimo names) on 31 species especially those of economic value: occurrence, migrations, color, age composition of herds, diseases and parasites; enemies; hunting, etc. Sketch of a corral formerly used for capturing caribou is given. Bibliography (31 items). Dr. Rausch is a member of the Arctic Health Research Center, U.S. Public Health Service, at Anchorage, Alaska. The Nunamiut Eskimos are also treated in a full length study by H. Ingstad, q.v.
Contains text of a lecture delivered before the Permafrost Symposium at the First Alaskan Science Conference, Nov. 1950, Washington, D.C., dealing with the history of knowledge and exploration of permafrost; definitions and terminology; distribution and character: its vertical distribution, zones, kinds, etc; relation to climatic fluctuations; ice in permafrost; relation to vegetation; ground water, etc. "Permafrost or perennially frozen ground extends over one-fifth of the land area of the earth. Regions of permafrost has been classed as: continuous, discontinuous and sporadic. Permafrost has been observed to depths of approximately 2000 ft. in Siberia and 1000 ft in Alaska. The temperature below the level of zero amplitude within the permafrost ranges from slightly less than 0° C. The surface layer above the permafrost thaws partially or completely and is called the active zone. Plants are rooted in it and all churning and soil movements take place in the active zone. An unfrozen layer between the permafrost table and the active zone, or...within or below the permafrost, is called talik. Observations indicate that the southern boundary of permafrost is slowly moving northward due to present climatic flucuations. Utilization of permafrost and the problems involved are discussed."--SIPRE. Bibliography (16 items).
Report of an intensive study (made in July-Aug. 1950) of this plover, Bertramia longicauda on a breeding ground along the Duke River (tributary of the Kluane): notes of the area and its vegetation ; the feeding behaviour of the young; production and mortality; territory, home, range, movements, and departure from breeding grounds; observations on plover in other Yukon areas. Bibliography (15 items).
The loss of the Institute's Norseman aircraft, piloted by Maurice King and carrying Mrs. Walter A. Wood and Valerie Wood, was mentioned in a brief notice in the last number of Arctic. The aircraft was taking part in the Institute's research project "Snow Cornice", when it disappeared on 27 July 1951 on a flight from the research station, in the St. Elias Mountains in the Alaska-Yukon boundary region, to the base camp at Yakutat, Alaska. Mrs. Wood's husband, Walter A. Wood, is the Director of the Institute's New York Office and leader of project Snow Cornice. In spite of an intensive search by the United States Air Force, the Royal Canadian Air Force, and other official and private groups, in which Mrs. Wood's husband and son and Mr. King's son participated, no trace of the aircraft has been found and the occupants are presumed dead. The Arctic Institute extends its deepest sympathy to their relatives. The Institute also wishes to express its most grateful thanks to all those who took part in the search for the Norseman. The following notices are written by Dr. A. L. Washburn, Director of the Washington Office. ...
Hans Nielsen, formerly colony manager at Thule, northwest Greenland, was killed in a traffic accident in Copenhagen on 4 September 1951. Hans Rudolf Johannes Emil Nielsen was born in the village of Qaersut, Umanak district, west Greenland, on 19 March 1898. When he had completed his education in Denmark, his relative and close friend, Dr. Knud Rasmussen, put him in charge of the trading post at Thule, where he served for more than twenty years. Hans Nielsen's work in Thule has been of immeasurable importance to the Eskimo population of the district. His unfailing sense of justice and fairness gave him undisputed authority both among white men and among natives. He was thereby able to keep up the morale of the Eskimo by preserving the most valuable of the old tribal customs and to enlist their full cooperation in the enforcement of the game laws, a matter of vital importance after the introduction of firearms. As long as Hans Nielsen was in Thule, the natives were spared most of the difficulties that ordinarily beset primitive people on their first contact with Western civilization. Many Danish, American, and British expeditions, which visited Thule between the two World Wars, have enjoyed the boundless hospitality of Mr. and Mrs. Nielsen. Hans Nielsen was a practical man with a thorough knowledge of his district, and his advice has saved many an inexperienced traveler from difficulties, if not from disaster. In 1941 Hans Nielsen left Thule to accept a position as colony manager in Egedesminde, and later moved to Godhavn. A few months before his death he had retired because of failing health and had planned to settle in Denmark. Hans Nielsen is survived by his wife, a son and a daughter, and by his mother, who after the death of her first husband married Dr. Alfred Bertelsen, Medical Counselor to the Greenland Administration.