Account of work conducted during preceding three summers by parties of anthropologists, archeologists and medical workers, at Nikolski village on Umnak Island, at Atka on Atka Island and at St. Paul Island in the Pribilofs. The results of this work are correlated with those of earlier investigators in a summary account of the physical anthropology, archeology, ethnology and linguistics of Aleuts. Conclusion: the Aleuts appear to have moved from the Alaskan mainland in two waves, one beginning 4,000 years ago, the other within the last 1,000 years and still continuing at the time of the Russian discovery of the area. The culture of the entire span of occupation was continuous. The great numbers of Aleuts and other Eskimos in southern Alaska possibly arose through a "population explosion" brought about by very favorable living conditions existing here when the first proto-Eskimos came south, along the west coast of Alaska. Of the 16,000 Aleuts estimated to have lived in the area prior to the white man's penetration, only 1,200 remain. Early massacres, exhaustion of marine resources, diseases, etc., all caused by Europeans, contributed to the decline of the population, which still continues. Bibliography (14 items).
Based on the author's visit of the major areas of eolian (wind) deposits of Alaska and on published and unpublished information from other workers (whose areas of detailed studies are indicated on map 2). Author notes that only a small proportion of the eolian deposits can be shown on map (1) due to complexities caused by vegetation, reworking of streams, frost action, etc., which tend to obliterate or remove the deposits. Three major groups of eolian deposits (of Pleistocene to Recent age) are dealt with: those of the coastal plain of northern Alaska, the areas associated with glacial streams and the coastal margins. The extent, size, morphology, probable genesis and subsequent changes of the deposits are discussed, together with their character, composition, age, etc. A brief account of ash deposits concludes the paper. Bibliography (about 40 items).
Contains result of observations on distribution of mammals made in the course of other field investigations during 1946-49, for the Canadian Wildlife Service, by trapping, canoe trips and low-level flights. "Mackenzie district consists of two major biotic formations in which mammals occur: the tundra and the taiga or boreal forest biomes. These observations deal with the fauna of both formations." 18 species are dealt with, their occurrence (observed or implied) is discussed together with their color, habitat, migration, abundance etc. Bibliography (9 items).
Contains notes and observations on tides and driftwood strand lines made incidentally to other work during a canoe trip (Moosonee to Long Island) in summer 1950, the measurements being taken at irregular intervals and only in the daytime. Reference is made, and eyewitness accounts are quoted regarding the unusually high tide of October 1949, the highest in the memory of the James Bay residents. This is supplemented by observations on the driftwood strand lines of the locality. Bibliography (8 items).
The news items include: 1) information on a hydrographic and oceanographic expedition to the Beaufort Sea; 2) a report by Herbert Hanson on his research in western Alaska, undertaken during the summers of 1949 and 1950, concerning the relationships of plant communities to the physical environment; 3) details of "arctic dog disease" and precautions to follow when shipping dog samples south for diagnosis; 4) notes on uranium prospecting in Alaska; 5) notification that copies of microfilms of journals relating to expeditions led by Sir F.L. M'Clintock were received by the Northern Administration Branch of the Canadian Dept. of Resources and Development; 6) results of an tuberculosis survey of the native peoples living in the area to be served by the new hospital in Moose Factory.
Lincoln Ellsworth, a pioneer in arctic and antarctic exploration by air, and first to fly completely across both polar regions, died on 26 May 1951 following a heart attack. He was in his 72nd year. A restless desire to see new lands, cross new seas, and to expand earth's frontiers was the expressed motive in all that Ellsworth did. Born of wealthy parents, he decided early in life to devote himself to exploration, and gave up a life of leisure to fit himself to lead expeditions by aircraft, ship, canoe, submarine, dirigible, and on foot to Alaska, the Canadian Northwest, the Andes, and both polar regions. His expeditions were not mere stunts for fortune or self glory, but, in spite of the quiet way in which he organized them, they were often spectacular and in total added much to geographical science and to the record of courageous leadership. After brief periods at Yale, Columbia, and McGill universities, Ellsworth left college to become an axman on the first Canadian transcontinental railroad survey. Later he was a prospector and mining engineer in Alaska and the Canadian Subarctic. Going to France as a volunteer in the First World War, he qualified as a flier only to have his service curtailed by pulmonary illness. In 1924 he led a geological expedition across the Andes from the Pacific to the headwaters of the Amazon. In 1925, with Amundsen and Riiser-Larsen he attempted a North Pole flight from Spitsbergen, but was forced back after one of the two aircraft was lost. On the return Amundsen stated that Ellsworth with almost incredible hardihood and personal risk had saved the lives of the entire expedition. In 1927, with Amundsen and Nobile, Ellsworth flew across the North Pole in the dirigible Norge. In 1931, as representative of the American Geographical Society, he flew in the Graf Zeppelin on its arctic flight. For a time he supported Sir Hubert Wilkins' early attempts in the field of arctic submarine exploration. Although the submarine venture was unsuccessful, the association of these two explorers, when directed to the Antarctic, brought geographical results of the highest order. From 1933 to 1939, Ellsworth made numerous flights with Balchen, Hollick-Kenyon, and Lymburner in which he discovered nearly 400,000 square miles of the Antarctic Continent. His books include: 'The last wild buffalo hunt', 'Our polar flight', 'Search', and 'Beyond horizons'. He collaborated with Amundsen in 'The first crossing of the Polar Sea'. Although awarded high honours by his own and foreign governments and by scientific and exploring groups, Lincoln Ellsworth remained a sincerely modest man, quick to seek and act on the counsel of his expeditionary associates, whom he chose with care, but yielding to no one his unequalled leadership in courage and determination.