General discussion of changes in Greenlanders' traditional customs, their economic problems of today, and Greenland as a part of the world community.
Description of the origin , formation, and growth of permafrost, its relation to mean annual temperature and vegetation; notes on age of permaforst in Canada; mention of unsolved problems connected with the phenomenon in Canada; bibliography (20 items).
Brief summary of arctic ice and the Labrador Current; influence of arctic and Atlantic waters on Hudson Bay. Includes a note on the Canadian Joint Committee on Oceanography (of which the author is chief oceanographer), and a bibliography (8 items).
Presentation of a new classification system, dividing the Labrador Peninsula (including northern Ontario and Quebec, Ungava and Labrador proper) into eighteen sections. The sections are characterized by their distinctive geologic, biogeographic, forest, and geographic features.
Brief account, in general terms, of the author's field-trips in the northern Quebec, Southampton Island, and Baker Lake (Keewatin) regions, summer 1946; in the northwestern part of Mackenzie District, summer 1947; and in Fairbanks, Alaska, 1948, whence he made high altitude, aerological, bacteriological, collecting flights to the North Pole. Includes remarks on the vegetation in regions visited in 1946 and 1947.
Description, with ship's plans, of the new ketch built in 1948 for the Fisheries Research Board of Canada.
Commander David C. Nutt, U.S.N.R., of Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, is to lead a scientific expedition to Labrador in June 1949. The following is a description of his vessel, which will sail under the auspices of the Arctic Institute of North America. The Blue Dolphin, designed by W. J. Roue and built by the Shelburne Shipbuilders, Ltd., Nova Scotia in 1926, has lines similar to the famous Bluenose. Heavily lumbered with 9-inch double frames and heavy planks, she has an overall length of 100 feet, a beam of 22 feet, and a draught of 12 feet. Her registered net tonnage is 68, and her gross tonnage 91. It is planned to sheathe the hull with greenheart, a South American hardwood which polishes instead of splintering under ice abrasion. The stem will be strengthened and a heavy iron shoe added. For power, a new 140 hp. Wolverine 4-cylinder, 4-cycle, 83-inch by 104-inch heavy duty diesel engine was installed in 1947. This engine provides a nice compromise between fuel economy and speed, and gives a cruising speed of 7 knots with a maximum of 8 knots. Additional fuel tanks have been added to give the Blue Dolphin a cruising range of over 4000 miles. The present two-masted schooner rig with Marconi main has a sail area of over 4000 feet, but will be reduced about 20% by cutting the bowsprit down to a 4-foot stub and shortening the main boom approximately 7 feet. This will leave an adequate sail area, and maneuvre the vessel under sail alone in the event of damage to the screw, but will eliminate the long projecting bowsprit and main boom, which are undesirable in northern operation. ... Sails are considered a desirable auxiliary which can provide for fuel economy by helping the vessel along in a fair wind and which may save the vessel in the event of damage to rudder or screw, a real possibility in northern navigation. The Blue Dolphin will carry an 18-foot power launch and two or three fisherman dories for boats. It is also planned to add hydrographic and trawl winches, and deep-sea sounding gear, samplers, and other scientific equipment for hydrographic and oceanographic investigations. Space will be provided for small laboratories. When re-fitted, there will be accommodations for about 18 to 20 hands including a crew of six with the remaining space for scientific workers and student assistants. It is planned to take three to five research workers to carry out field studies. The student assistants will assist in both underway operation of the ship and in carrying out the field work. Preliminary plans for operation in 1949 are to make hydrographic and other studies in the Strait of Belle Isle and along the Labrador coast.
A report titled "Medical Investigation of Southampton Island" by Malcolm Brown is followed by 28 reports on research projects that were in progress at the end of 1948 and that were funded in part or in whole by the Arctic Institute. The 3 anthropological reports are: "The extension of the tree-ring chronology in Alaska by further excavation so as to date the early phases of Eskimo culture in the Bering Strait region" by J.L. Giddings; "A study of the ethnologic and physical anthropology of Eskimos in the region between Norton Sound and the Alaska Peninsula" by Helge Larsen; and "Cooperative study to determine the developmental sequences in human culture, vegetation, etc., in the Yukon Territory" by H.M. Raup. The 16 biological reports are: "Botanical investigation of portions of the Brooks Range and Arctic Slope of Alaska" by William Cooper and Lloyd Spetzman; "A study of the ecology of Rana sylvatica in relation to permafrost, season, foods, and adaptations" by R.D. Hamilton; "Study of the microfauna of Arctic shore areas, (Coppermine and Hudson Bay)" by Marie Hammer; "A study of the breeding habits of the Canada Goose on the west coast of James Bay" by Harold Hanson; "A biological investigation of the Nueltin Lake area in Keewatin and Manitoba, with special emphasis on the life histories and ecology of mammals, birds and fishes, and on the distribution of plants" by Francis Harper; "An analysis of population structure, gene frequencies and hybridization of Arctic and Subarctic species of Colias" by William Hovanitz; "A forest-botanical study of portions of Ungava Peninsula" by Ilmari Hustich; "A study of certain ornithological problems in the Norton Sound region of Alaska" by Henry Kyllingstad; "An ecological study of the transition zone between tundra and forest in Ungava" by J.W. Marr; "A comparative study of mite fauna of the North American Arctic (Barrow and southward)" by Irwin Newell; "A study of the flora and vegetation of the Canadian Eastern Arctic and Subarctic" by Nicholas Polunin; "A study of the habits and economics of fur animals as factors of management and conservation" by H.F. Quick; "A study of the mammal population of the Canadian Arctic north of Latitude 60° and its value for survival" by A.L. Rand; "A botanical survey of Ungava Peninsula between the head of the Romaine River and Ungava Bay" by Jacques Rousseau; "A study of blood and tissue lipids of Arctic animals in relation to post-hibernation fat depletion" by Charles Wilber; and "Some phases of the relation of selected faunae population (avian and mammalian) to weather at Kluane Lake, Yukon Territory" by L.W. Wing. The 7 geographical/geophysical reports are: "A study of the terrain of the Ungava Peninsula" by G. Vibert Douglas; "A geographical study of the coasts of Hudson Bay and Strait" by T.H. Manning; "A study of the terrain of the Canadian Eastern Arctic (exclusive of the Ungava Peninsula)" by T.T. Paterson; "The use of aerial photographs for predetermining ground conditions influencing engineering structures and construction practices in the arctic and subarctic regions of North America" by Donald Belcher; "To gather and compile all available data on permafrost in the Norman Wells area and to continue a study of permafrost and related soil and snow mechanics with a view to improving the present methods of road building, communications and general construction in the Arctic and Subarctic regions" by R.A. Hemstock; "Project Snow Cornice - the establishment of a glacial research station on the Seward Glacier in the area of the Alaska-Yukon boundary" by Walter Wood; and "A study of the oceanography of the Canadian Eastern Arctic" by M.J. Dunbar. The 2 geological reports are: "Geological study of the East Coast of Hudson Bay" by E.H. Kranck and "A study of the geology of Ungava Peninsula between Ungava Bay and Hudson Bay" by Edgar Aubert de La Rue.
The R.C.N. ice-breaker which is being built at Marine Industries, Sorel, Quebec, will in many respects be similar to the United States Coast Guard Eastwind Class. The R.C.N. ship will include, however, some modifications which have been suggested by experience with the U.S. ships and by observations of the behaviour of these and other ice-breaking vessels. The ice-breaker will be 269 feet long with a breadth of 63 feet, 6 inches. Displacement will be 5,400 tons, and the maximum draught 29 feet. It will be propelled by a 10,000 hp. diesel-electric system. The machinery layout will be similar to that of Eastwind, but the bow propeller will be omitted. Accommodation will be provided for a crew of 13 officers and 160 other ranks and for a number of observers of officer rank; for this reason the Ward Room will be enlarged and improved. The vessel is not expected to operate single-handed against enemy concentrations, so the gun armament which was a feature of the original American ship, is to be considerably reduced. This will allow more room for quarters and stores, together with increased provision for radio and radar. A flight deck aft will take helicopters of the type now in use in the R.C.A.F. If necessary, a seaplane can be carried in place of the helicopters. As a result of experience in recent years, the shell plating on icebreakers has been increased. The new R.C.N. ship will have plates 1 5/8 inches thick and of special high-tensile steel. It seems inconceivable that any ice could penetrate such a massive steel wall, but in case it did there will be an inner skin protecting the vital parts of the ship. As with the U.S. ice-breakers the Canadian vessel will be fitted with heeling tanks as a safeguard against being frozen in. Temperatures at sea in the Arctic are not, of course, so extreme as those inland, but even so, special steps are necessary to maintain suitable temperatures inside. In the R.C.N. ship this will be effected throughout by four inches of fiberglass insulation in place of the cork formerly used. The boats carried will be of two types, motor lifeboats for use in open water, and Landing Craft specially strengthened for use in ice, where stores and personnel have to be landed. Experience has shown that this type of vessel is very useful under arctic conditions where the ice-covered beaches are very hard on conventional boats.