Brief sketch of the work of experimental stations, the effect of permafrost on crop growth, the various agricultural regions of Alaska, livestock production and diversified farming.
... This Project was set up in June 1947, as a three-year program to produce a comprehensive bibliography of Arctic research publications. It has a Directing Committee of leading scientists and librarians of United States and Canada, in touch with current research programs of private and governmental agencies, several themselves with field experience in the North. The Committee determines policies in the preparation of the Bibliography and its members act in an advisory capacity to the Project staff in the various scientific fields represented in the literature. The staff comprises a Director, three research analysts, all experienced librarians, and three assistants at the Project headquarters, also several contributing analysts. This staff includes specialists in the principal foreign languages, Scandinavian, Russian, German and French, experienced in the principal sciences, zoology, botany, geology, meteorology, oceanography, etc., and familiar with the collections of the principal libraries of the United States, Canada and Europe. The Project headquarters is in Washington, in space generously made available by the Library of Congress. The Project is financed by the U.S. Office of Naval Research, the U.S. Department of the Army and by the Canadian Government. It is sponsored by, and its funds are administered by, the Arctic Institute of North America. The scope of the bibliography is broad geographically, covering Alaska, northern Canada (and Labrador), Greenland, Svalbard, northern Scandinavia and U.S.S.R. and Kamchatka, the Arctic Seas and Straits and the North Polar Basin. In subject matter the range is also wide, including geography, geology, geophysics, meteorology, oceanography, botany, zoology, anthropology, medicine, administration and government. The Project in fact, includes the various disciplines which are our avenues of approach to an understanding of the arctic world, its physical features, indigenous life, and its resources in terms of our civilization, and not least the discipline by which we may utilize these resources and adapt ourselves to the conditions of the Arctic. ... For a project so broad in scope the literature is obviously immense; in so limited a time some selection is necessary. The Directing Committee and Project Staff in consultation, decided to place primary emphasis on publications giving the explorers' and scientists' own record of their work in the area of interest, results of expeditions and investigations as produced by their members; then emphasis on government reports, then on discussions in publications of learned societies and scientific institutions devoted to arctic work, and so on. The Bibliography is designed to contain as much of the original records of arctic research and exploration as may be analysed and indexed in three years' time. ...
The Second (1948) Antarctic Development Project was the second post-war U.S. Navy expedition to the Antarctic and was in reality in part a continuation of the previous year's "Operation High-jump". The general plan of the expedition was that two "wind-class" ice-breakers should penetrate the belt of ice pack at various points along the antarctic coasts and land parties by boat, overland transport, or by aircraft to enable them to fix geographical points. In addition a program of research in the various sciences was undertaken, as well as extensive testing of naval equipment and operational procedure. Commander G. L. Ketchum, USN, was in command of the expedition, officially known as Task Force 39. The ice-breaker U.S.S. Edisto (AG-89), under the command of Commander E. C. Folger, USN, departed Norfolk on 6 November 1947 and proceeded via the Panama Canal to American Samoa to join U.S.S. Burton Island (AG-88), commanded by Commander E. A. MacDonald, USN, and with the Task Force Commander and staff on board. Final departure for antarctic waters took place from Samoa at 0800 on 5 December and both ships headed south on parallel courses to make lines of deep sea soundings. ...
Based on observations made during the summer of 1947, during a botanical investigation carried out with the aid of the Arctic Institute of North America. Brief sketch of the arctic and subarctic zones, the flora in relation to glaciation; the present-day lack of game, and resultant living problems for the Indians; recommendations for introduction of reindeer and mountain goats.
Contains information on its location and surroundings, staff and program, with a bibliography (12 items).
Sponsored by the Arctic Institute of North America, directed by the author, and staffed by Canadian and American personnel, this airborne expedition established a semi-permanent research station in the drainage basin of Seward Glacier close to the Alaska-Yukon boundary, where in July-Aug. 1948, a program of glaciological, biological, meteorological and mapping research was begun. Dr. Wood gives here a statement of the program, remarks on the airplane transportation used, and some "broad conclusions from the first field season," concerning the glacier, the weather, and animal life of the region.
Account of an expedition on Seward Peninsula, Alaska in June 1948, sponsored by the Arctic Institute of North America and Cornell University, during which the author discovered the bird's nesting place, sought by scientists since 1785. Includes notes on the nest and description of the bird's appearance.
Describes the Northumberland Strait train ferry Abegweit owned by the Canadian government and operated by Canadian National Railways; the Hudson's Bay Company vessels Rupertsland, intended for use in the Eastern Arctic, and an as yet unnamed Western Arctic vessel; and a new Canadian government vessel for the Eastern Arctic Patrol, also as yet unnamed.
Mr. L. A. Learmonth, formerly of the Fur Trade Department, Hudson's Bay Company and a Fellow of the Arctic Institute has provided Arctic with notes and sketch maps concerning traces of the Franklin Expedition found in the King William Island region of northern Canada. The map published here is based on the Canadian National Topographic Series map on a scale of 8 miles to the inch, with amendments by Mr. Learmonth. The following items refer to the large map. Mr. Learmonth and Mr. D. G. Sturrock discovered the remains of three men at Tikeraniyou (1) together with a George IV Half Crown and a large ivory sailor's button (Pootogo). The remains were taken to Gjoa Haven and the relics forwarded to Hudson's Bay House, Winnipeg. The place is a point of land shaped like a crooked finger, and is where the land bends round to the southwest, between 12 and 15 miles west of Starvation Cove. A skull and some bones were found at (2) near Washington Bay late in June 1942 and were taken to Gjoa Haven. Two skulls were discovered on the beach at (3) near Tulloch Point in June 1942 and forwarded to the R.C.M.P. at Cambridge Bay, where they were buried near the grave of Patsy Klengenberg. Remains of seven of Franklin's men were found at (4), Douglas Bay, by Paddy Gibson. Bones of four of Franklin's men were moved from islands at (5) and along with three others from Tikeraniyou were buried under the beacon at Gjoa Haven. The following items refer to the small inset map of the Richardson Point area. Jaw bones of three white men discovered at (1) in June 1942. Most of the teeth were in place, in good condition, and not ground down as would have been the case with adult Eskimos. Mr. Learmonth also found one whole skull and many large bones scattered on the surface close to an old Eskimo seal cache. Moss had grown over many of the bones. He erected a small cairn where the bones were discovered, and a larger one at the sky line on the ridge above, and which can readily be seen from the sea.He took all the bones to Gjoa Haven. Neniook, Eyaritituk's mother, about seventy years old, reported having come across the skeletons of seven white men still partly clothed in blue serge, and partly buried in the sand and seaweed on a small island in the vicinity of (2). Hard boots with nails in the soles were also noted by Neniook who was a small child at the time. She was not available at the time Mr. Learmonth searched several small islands in the vicinity very carefully, but he failed to discover any evidence. In a letter accompanying the above notes Mr. Learmonth suggests that it might be appropriate for a cairn or other memorial to be erected at Victory Point, King William Island "commemorating the landing of 105 men under Crozier from the abandoned Erebus and Terror". It was there, he points out, that the only written record ever recovered from the expedition was found. He also suggests a cairn and a memorial plaque for the grave of the seven men buried near the Hudson's Bay Company post at Gjoa Haven. "Their names of course are unknown, but did they not die in a great cause? Whoever they may be, did they not fight as tough a battle as any unknown soldier?" In August 1948, Mr. Learmonth flew north from Winnipeg on the H.B.C. Canso with Mr. R. H. Chesshire, Manager of the Fur Trade Department. He plans to remain in the area of Fort Ross throughout the winter, in order to carry out archaeological, geographical and other studies.
... My flight north touched briefly at Goose Bay, Labrador, and thence continued northward over Greenland to Thule, where I spent a happy evening with Dalkild a Danish meteorological scientist, and talked with Ootah who had been with Peary, and others who had travelled with Rasmussen. The next day we flew into Resolute Bay on Cornwallis Island. Here we remained for three weeks getting our supplies ready for an airlift to Isachsen Land where we were to establish a joint Canadian-United States weather station. We flew several reconnaissance flights over Isachsen Land before finding a spot that looked likely for landing an aircraft. Finally early in April a safe landing was effected and eventually a mound of some 160 tons of equipment was made on the sea ice. ...
Nine individual research projects are reported: 1. Archaeology. 2. Aerobiology. 3. Botany: by canoe across the Ungava Peninsula via the Kogaluk and Payne Rivers by Dr. Jacques Rousseau. 4. Geology: Geological survey through the Ungava Peninsula: report supplied by E. Aubert de LaRüe. 5. Geography: Study of the hydrography of Mackenzie waterway and the western Arctic as far east as Boothia Peninsula; Physiography of Baker Lake and the Thelon River west to Beverly Lake; Operation magnetic; Task Force 80; Ungava Peninsula. 6. Permafrost. 7. Entomology. 8. Radio: mobile ionospheric observatory. 9. Zoology.
"News From High Latitudes" includes brief reports or correspondence on a number of expeditions or scientific research efforts in both the Arctic and the Antarctic. Many of the news items relate to transportation and communication issues and include such topics as shipping at Churchill; reforms in Greenland; H.B.C. trading transport in Arctic Canada; Norwegian polar activities; news items from beyond the North Pole; roster of Arctic specialists; free ride to Arctic port; Aklavik on the air; Canadian need for qualified scientists and administrators in the North; explorers in Carnegie Hall, New York; new land in Foxe Basin; French expedition to Greenland; French Antarctic expedition; university seminar in North American Arctic; Antarctic whaling; Alaska railroad being modernized; trichinosis from polar bear meat; new Arctic fishing bank; and short-wave to Antarctica.