The Arctic Institute of North America is concerned with the prosecution of research in the arctic and subarctic regions of the North American continent and in Greenland. The United States, Canada, and Greenland are represented on its Board of Governors. In the ten years during which the Institute has functioned, it has financed, or helped to finance, 177 projects of research in these northern areas, in a great variety of fields of scientific endeavour. In so doing, it has assisted in building up a corps of younger scientists competent to work in arctic territory. From these younger men much will be expected in the future. For the need is great. There are other agencies that are responsible for research work in the far north-governmental departments, private corporations, industrial firms. But the Arctic Institute of North America is the only agency that is international in scope. It deals with the problems in their wider scientific importance, unimpeded by national boundaries. Not only is this in the best interests of science; it is also in the best interests of international cooperation. There are common problems of defence in which this northern territory plays a very significant part. Because of this fact, a part of the research work in the Arctic in recent years is on the classified list, and does not appear in the current publications. It is none the less of great importance both from the scientific standpoint and in the national interest. The Research Committee of the Arctic Institute felt that a review of the present status of arctic research in the various fields of science would now be of value both to the scientific worker and to others who are interested in northern development. It was suggested that there would be great value if the present trends and the future needs were emphasized. The Committee has been fortunate in securing the cooperation of highly competent authorities in the sciences that are represented in this volume. The reader will be impressed with the work that has been accomplished. He will be even more impressed with what yet has to be done. The territory is very large. Much of it is not easily accessible. The season in summer is short. The work is arduous and demands special training. The workers are relatively few. This volume will have served its purpose if it stimulates to more widespread activity in arctic research. What has already been done has added greatly to our knowledge of the Arctic. It has done more; it has made the Arctic more accessible to those who are engaged in the development of its resources, and in the well-being of its people. The Arctic Institute of North America has already played no inconsiderable part in the encouragement of arctic research. Governmental departments, corporations, and private individuals have assisted the Institute greatly in their work. It is a great pleasure to take this opportunity to express the appreciation of all who are associated with the Institute for the support which has been given so generously. It is the hope of the Governors that, with still wider support, much can be accomplished that the authors of the papers in this volume feel is so urgently needed to be done.
Permanent and semi-permanent weather stations have been established in the Canadian North since about 1900. The 41 operating stations in Sept. 1955 between 58 N and 82 30 N. are listed. Their work includes keeping climatological records, upper air observations, observations for air operations, studies of ice fog, blowing snow, humidity, snowfall, cloud type and amount, permafrost, jet streams, ozone, radiation, night sky radiation and aurorae.
Reviews (for Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Alaska) accomplishment in geological mapping; also needed research in such geologic processes as sediment transport by glacial streams, frost action, mass wasting, soil formation, and icings; in permafrost investigations; glaciology; stratigraphic and structural investigations; geomorphology; ground water and engineering geology.
Glaciological research, mainly since World War II, is reviewed by the first author; and specific aspects outlined by the second: velocity relations, and structures in glaciers, phase relations in glacier ice, oxygen isotope studies in snow, firn and glacier ice, micro-meteorology and the regime of glaciers.
"Problems connected with permafrost, the development of research in Canada and the United States in the last decade, and future research programs are discussed. The problems for research include: an accurate knowledge of permafrost distribution; correlation of permafrost with meteorological statistical studies; the performance of roads, airfields, and buildings in permafrost areas; physical and mechanical properties of frozen ground; and the origin of permafrost."--SIPRE.
Describes briefly status of the geodetic network in Alaska and future program; geomagnetic observations; ionosphere studies by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards at eight field stations in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and Iceland; seismology.
Progress since 1928 is reviewed in the study of permafrost and related phenomena, geothermal investigations, sedimentary geology and oil exploration, metalliferous lodes, radioactive minerals and volcano research. Problems for future research are indicated: the distribution, physical properties, and origin of permafrost; its relation to climate, vegetation, and animal life; its effect on human activity; and the development of equipment for use in low temperatures. Need is stated for magnetic and electrical investigations in which the modifying effects of the earth's crustal rocks are taken into account.
Contains survey of research during the 19th and 20th centuries in geomagnetism, gravity, and seismology; and an outline of geophysical problems related to the Arctic. These include the position and motion of the Magnetic North Pole, relation of upper atmosphere electric currents to the earth's magnetic field, shape of the earth, degree of isostatic equilibrium in the Arctic, earthquakes in the Arctic Basin, meteorites and meteorite craters.
Contains review of communication problems in northern Canada. Shortwave radio via sky-wave tranmission is the most economical method of communication, but suffers from occasional failures due to ionospheric disturbances. Ionospheric research conducted in Canada to improve short-wave radio is discussed. Eight ionospheric recording observatories were established. Four of these, at St. John's in Newfoundland, Ottawa, Winnipeg, and Prince Rupert, skirted the southern part of the auroral zone from east to west. Stations at Churchill and Fort Chimo were near the line of maximum auroral occurrence, and those at Baker Lake and Resolute Bay extended the line of observations from Winnipeg to a point north of the magnetic pole. In 1954 the stations at St. John's, Fort Chimo, and Prince Rupert were discontinued. Research on spectra, luminosity, height, and electron density of the aurora is briefly discussed.
Arctic work of the Canadian Geodetic Survey started in 1935. Between 1942 and 1950, 300 astronomical stations were established on the mainland north of the tree-line and in the southern Canadian Arctic Islands. The shoran electronic method of position fixation has superseded the astronomical method in most areas. Methods are described, as is the extension of the Canadian shoran net since 1949. Future extensions, gravity observations, and needed investigations of changes in mean sea level are briefly discussed.
General physical, biological and geological characteristics of the Arctic Ocean are known, but circulation requires investigation. Only here does it occur to considerable depths without a significant supply of energy from local winds. Influence on it of bottom topography is confirmed by knowledge of the recently discovered Lomonosov Ridge, dividing the Basin in two. Advantages of this area for oceanographic study are the comparatively (to other oceans) small size, and a working platform provided by the ice; need is stated for aircraft designed specifically for arctic oceanography.
Knowledge of tidal conditions is meager and observations are difficult to obtain because of the prevalence of ice, scarcity of inhabited areas, and inaccessibility of the region. Stations are noted with data available for Canadian Arctic Islands waters, arctic coast of Alaska, Hudson Bay and Strait, Baffin Bay-Davis Strait, and east coast of Greenland. Additional stations, long-period observations depth soundings, new techniques are stated to be necessary.
"Sea-ice research in various countries is reviewed, and problems requiring further study are indicated. The need for improvement in ice terminology and methods of transmitting ice information is stressed, as well as a more thorough knowledge of sea ice physics and of factors controlling the movement of floes."--SIPRE.
Distribution of arctic lakes is noted and the literature reviewed. General problems in arctic limnology include thermal and trophic classifications, water circulation, productivity as compared with arctic marine waters, and comparison of arctic and alpine lakes. Future research programs should comprise a reconnaissance of lakes in the Canadian Arctic, intensive investigation of selected lakes and a river, expansion of Ungava work and general studies on distribution of fresh-water fish. Cooperation between limnologists, plant ecologists, and geologists is urged.
The Arctic and sub-Arctic are defined in terms of marine environment. Differences in biological productivity between the areas are discussed, with consideration of the chemical and physical factors involved. Plankton production and biology, benthonic and littoral fauna, and fishes and marine animals present problems related to North American fisheries and Eskimo needs. In each case problems are listed for future study, a discussion of systematic and zoogeographic problems closing the report. Maps show (1) zones of the marine environment, (2) bathymetry, and (3) major currents of northern seas. Diagram illustrates the biological cycle in arctic and subarctic marine zones.
Northern vegetational problems include primarily those of flora and of plant communities. A "comprehensive, descriptive flora, with keys and illustrations" has not been developed for boreal North America, but published regional lists are noted here. The study of plant communities must be correlated with climate (including microclimate and climatic change), soils, and the evolution of land forms. Training of field workers is discussed, and examples are given of problems met in the field. An outline of problems derived from the study follows the text.
Soil resources and agricultural development in Alaska
Arctic, v. 7, no. 3 and 4, 1954, p. 236-248, ill.
Contribution - Alaska. Agricultural Experiment Station, paper, no. 2, Journal series
ASTIS record 9752
Outlines commercial agriculture, its scope, production and branches; soil resources, amelioration, etc.; agricultural potential; food potential. Current agricultural research including reindeer ranges is noted; major needs are stated as specialized equipment and housing, cheaper land clearing and new markets.
Contains account of pedological research conducted by the Canadian government for the past 11 years, mainly in the Northwest; the experimental stations (two) north of 60 degrees North, their lands, staff, problems, future research needed: soil surveys, formation and fertility; micro-organisms; permafrost; agro-meteorology; crop production, selection and breeding; animal husbandry, etc.
Reviews achievement of "the faunal inventory" for Alaska, Canada and Greenland, noting principal collections, published results, etc. Progress and needs in life-history studies, population inventories, physiological problems of animals and birds, diseases and parasites, are indicated. Research centers (Godhavn, Barrow, Fairbanks, Fort Churchill) are noted.
Account of invertebrate collections and research in the 19th century; work in present century till 1940 (mostly descriptive and taxonomic); research centers in Alaska; recent and current investigation in entomology, parasitology, terrestrial and marine invertebrates; main research problems.
Present trends and future needs of entomological research in northern Canada
Arctic, v. 7, no. 3 and 4, 1954, p. 275-283, figure
Contribution - Canada. Dept. of Agriculture. Entomology Division. Science Service, no. 3143
ASTIS record 9756
Contains a review, by the senior author, of the Northern Insect Survey since its inception in 1947, number of localities investigated and papers published. Problems to be solved like origin, post-glacial histories and present distribution are also noted. In pt. 2, Biology and control of biting flies, the second author surveys work and needs, in biology and control of biting flies, insecticides, repellants, etc.
The first two authors present a brief outline of research in plant taxonomy, geography and ecology; tree planting and future work. Dr. Dunbar reviews terrestrial and fresh-water faunistic studies: marine biological and fisheries investigations in West Greenland and its offshore waters.
Contains a brief discussion of archeological research in this area since the first systematic work in 1927; the relationship of the various Eskimo and pre-Eskimo cultures; connections with Siberian finds; reconstruction of cultural stages and sequences and their development into present-day patterns (shown on a chart); discussion of problems to be solved, etc.
Following an introduction on the place of the anthropologist in the study of Eskimo archeology and culture, the author discusses the needs for study: of population size, trends and vital statistics; of social, emotional and other factors affecting their ways of life; of housing, clothing, boats, dogs, etc. The effect of the current technological change, of economic change, resettlement, modern health service, Christianity and other elements of white man's culture are also recommended for study.
Contain survey of research problems in relation to future northern settlement. Significance of the region to population of the rest of the world, historical patterns of settlement, available resources, and self-sufficiency of future settlements are discussed. Population of Alaska, northern Canada, and Greenland is considered: problems of enumeration, distribution, and permanence of settlement. Frontier settlement research needs and methods are outlined: frontiers in terms of agriculture, mining, land transportation, white-native contact; methods of new settlement by native and non-native.
Discusses importance of choosing settlement sites which allow for future expansion. Development and settlement depend mainly on transportation and the mining industry; transpolar aviation, military activities, and administrative services (schools, etc.) are factors in uneconomic areas. Historical development of transportation routes and future plans are discussed. Most research problems are in the engineering field: construction, fuel, lubricants. Transpolar air routes as well as internal communications are considered. Interests and role of Eskimos in development program, e.g. in surveying and maintenance of transport, offers problems for research.
Contains a review and discussion of the problem, specifically vascular dynamics between and during acute cold exposures in Eskimos and acclimatized white men; basal metabolism; metabolism during acute exposure; blood volume; blood and urine chemistry; ascorbic acid content.